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German Criminal Code
(Strafgesetzbuch – StGB)

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Übersetzung durch Prof. Dr. Michael Bohlander. Vollständige Überarbeitung und laufende Aktualisierung durch Ute Reusch

Translation provided by Prof. Dr Michael Bohlander. Translation completely revised and regularly updated by Ute Reusch

Stand: Die Übersetzung berücksichtigt die Änderung(en) des Gesetzes durch Artikel 2 des Gesetzes vom 19. Juni 2019 (BGBl. I, S. 844)
Der Stand der deutschsprachigen Dokumentation kann aktueller sein. Vergleichen Sie dazu bitte http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/stgb/BJNR001270871.html.

Version information: The translation includes the amendment(s) to the Act by Article 2 of the Act of 19 June 2019 (Federal Law Gazette I, p. 844)
Translations may not be updated at the same time as the German legal provisions displayed on this website. To compare with the current status of the German version, see http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/stgb/BJNR001270871.html.

Zur Nutzung dieser Übersetzung lesen Sie bitte den Hinweis unter "Translations".

For conditions governing use of this translation, please see the information provided under "Translations".

           
General Part
Chapter 1
The criminal law
Title 1
Scope of application
Section 1No punishment without law
Section 2Temporal application
Section 3Application to offences committed on German territory
Section 4Application to offences committed on German ships and aircraft
Section 5Offences committed abroad with specific domestic connection
Section 6Offences committed abroad against internationally protected legal interests
Section 7Other offences committed abroad
Section 8Time of offence
Section 9Place of commission of offence
Section 10Special provisions for juveniles and young adults
Title 2
Terminology applied
Section 11Definitions
Section 12Serious and less serious criminal offences
Chapter 2
The act
Title 1
Basic principles of criminal liability
Section 13Commission by omission
Section 14Acting as agent
Section 15Intentional and negligent conduct
Section 16Mistake of fact
Section 17Mistake of law
Section 18More severe penalty based on specific results of offence
Section 19Lack of criminal responsibility of children
Section 20Lack of criminal responsibility due to mental illness
Section 21Diminished responsibility
Title 2
Attempt
Section 22Definition
Section 23Criminal liability for attempt
Section 24Abandonment of attempt
Title 3
Commission and participation
Section 25Commission of offence
Section 26Abetting
Section 27Aiding
Section 28Special personal characteristics
Section 29Separate criminal liability of parties to offence
Section 30Attempted participation
Section 31Withdrawal from attempted participation
Title 4
Self-defence and necessity
Section 32Self-defence
Section 33Excessive self-defence
Section 34Necessity as justification
Section 35Necessity as defence
Title 5
Immunity for statements and reports made in parliament
Section 36Parliamentary statements
Section 37Parliamentary reports
Chapter 3
Legal consequences
Title 1
Penalties
Imprisonment
Section 38Term of imprisonment
Section 39Determination of term of imprisonment
Fine
Section 40Daily rates
Section 41Fine in addition to imprisonment
Section 42Relaxation of payment conditions
Section 43Default imprisonment
Additional penalty
Section 44Driving ban
Incidental legal consequences
Section 45Loss of ability to hold public office, to vote and be elected
Section 45aEntry into effect and calculation of duration
Section 45bReinstatement of abilities and rights
Title 2
Fixing of penalties
Section 46General principles
Section 46aVictim–offender mediation, restitution
Section 46bContributing to discovery or prevention of serious crimes
Section 47Short terms of imprisonment only as exception
Section 48(repealed)
Section 49Special mitigating circumstances established by law
Section 50Multiple mitigating circumstances
Section 51Crediting of time spent in remand detention
Title 3
Fixing of penalties for multiple offences
Section 52Several offences committed by one act
Section 53Joinder of offences
Section 54Fixing of aggregate sentence
Section 55Subsequent fixing of aggregate sentence
Title 4
Suspension of sentence on probation
Section 56Suspension of sentence
Section 56aProbation period
Section 56bConditions
Section 56cDirections
Section 56dProbation services
Section 56eSubsequent decisions
Section 56fRevocation of suspension of sentence
Section 56gRemission of sentence
Section 57Suspension of remainder of determinate sentence of imprisonment
Section 57aSuspension of remainder of imprisonment for life
Section 57bSuspension of remainder of aggregate sentence of imprisonment for life
Section 58Aggregate sentence and suspension of sentence
Title 5
Warning with sentence reserved, dispensing with penalty
Section 59Conditions for warning with sentence reserved
Section 59aProbation period, conditions and directions
Section 59bImposition of sentence reserved
Section 59cAggregate sentence and warning with sentence reserved
Section 60Dispensing with penalty
Title 6
Measures of reform and prevention
Section 61Overview
Section 62Principle of proportionality
Measures involving deprivation of liberty
Section 63Placement in psychiatric hospital
Section 64Placement in addiction treatment facility
Section 65(repealed)
Section 66Placement in preventive detention
Section 66aPreventive detention reserved
Section 66bSubsequent order of preventive detention
Section 66cOrganisation of preventive detention and preceding imprisonment
Section 67Sequence of enforcement
Section 67aTransfer to another measure
Section 67bSimultaneous suspension of measure
Section 67cDeferred start of placement
Section 67dPeriod of placement
Section 67eReview
Section 67fMultiple orders
Section 67gRevocation of suspended measures
Section 67hLimited order for measure to take effect; crisis intervention
Supervision of conduct
Section 68Preconditions
Section 68aSupervisory authority, probation service, forensic outpatient service
Section 68bDirections
Section 68cPeriod of supervision of conduct
Section 68dSubsequent decisions; review period
Section 68eTermination or stay of supervision
Section 68fSupervision of conduct after serving full sentence
Section 68gSupervision of conduct and suspension on probation
Disqualification from driving
Section 69Disqualification from driving
Section 69aPeriod of disqualification
Section 69bEffect of disqualification of foreign licence
Disqualification from exercising profession
Section 70Order for disqualification from exercising profession
Section 70aSuspension of disqualification from exercising profession
Section 70bRevocation of suspension and disposal of disqualification from exercising profession
Common provisions
Section 71Independent orders
Section 72Joinder of measures
Title 7
Confiscation
Section 73Confiscation of proceeds of crime from offenders and participants
Section 73aExtended confiscation of proceeds of crime from offenders and participants
Section 73bConfiscation of proceeds of crime from other persons
Section 73cConfiscation of value of proceeds of crime
Section 73dCalculation of value of obtained object; estimate
Section 73ePreclusion of confiscation of proceeds of crime or of equivalent sum of money
Section 74Confiscation of products of crime, means of crime or objects of crime from offenders and participants
Section 74aConfiscation of products of crime, means of crime or objects of crime from other persons
Section 74bConfiscation of dangerous objects
Section 74cConfiscation of value of products of crime, means and resources used, and objects of crime from offenders and participants
Section 74dConfiscation of material and rendering unusable
Section 74eSpecial provision applicable to organs and representatives
Section 74fPrinciple of proportionality
Section 75Effects of confiscation
Subsequent order for confiscation of equivalent sum of money
Section 76aIndependent confiscation
Section 76bLimitation on confiscation of proceeds of crime and value of proceeds of crime
Chapter 4
Request to prosecute, authorisation to prosecute, request to prosecute by foreign state
Section 77Persons entitled to file request
Section 77aRequest by superior
Section 77bTime limit
Section 77cReciprocal offences
Section 77dWithdrawal of request
Section 77eAuthorisation and request by foreign state
Chapter 5
Limitation period
Title 1
Limitation on prosecution
Section 78Limitation period
Section 78aCommencement
Section 78bStay of limitation
Section 78cInterruption
Title 2
Limitation on enforcement
Section 79Limitation period
Section 79aStay of limitation
Section 79bExtension
Special Part
Chapter 1
Offences against peace, high treason and endangering democratic state under rule of law
Title 1
Offences against peace
Section 80(repealed)
Section 80aIncitement to crime of aggression
Title 2
High treason
Section 81High treason against Federation
Section 82High treason against Land
Section 83Preparation of high treasonous undertaking
Section 83aActive remorse (tätige Reue)
Title 3
Endangering democratic state under rule of law
Section 84Continuation of political party declared unconstitutional
Section 85Violation of ban on forming organisation
Section 86Dissemination of propaganda material of unconstitutional organisations
Section 86aUse of symbols of unconstitutional organisations
Section 87Acting as secret agent for purposes of sabotage
Section 88Anti-constitutional sabotage
Section 89Anti-constitutional influence on Federal Armed Forces and public security forces
Section 89aPreparation of serious violent offence endangering state
Section 89bEstablishment of relations for purpose of committing serious violent offence endangering state
Section 89cFinancing of terrorism
Section 90Disparagement of Federal President
Section 90aDisparagement of state and denigration of symbols
Section 90bAnti-constitutional disparagement of constitutional organs
Section 91Instructions for committing serious violent offence endangering state
Section 91aArea of application
Title 4
Common provisions
Section 92Definitions
Section 92aIncidental legal consequences
Section 92bConfiscation
Chapter 2
Treason and endangering external security
Section 93Definition of ‘state secret’
Section 94Treason
Section 95Revealing state secrets
Section 96Treasonous espionage; spying out state secrets
Section 97Divulging state secrets
Section 97aBetrayal of illegal secrets
Section 97bBetrayal based on mistaken assumption that secret is illegal
Section 98Treasonous activity as agent
Section 99Working as agent for intelligence service
Section 100Engaging in relations which endanger peace
Section 100aTreasonous forgery
Section 101Incidental legal consequences
Section 101aConfiscation
Chapter 3
Offences against foreign states
Section 102Attacks against organs and representatives of foreign states
Section 103(repealed)
Section 104Desecration of flags and state symbols of foreign states
Section 104aRequirements for prosecution
Chapter 4
Offences against constitutional organs and in context of elections and ballots
Section 105Coercion of constitutional organs
Section 106Coercion of Federal President and members of constitutional organ
Section 106a(repealed)
Section 106bDisruption of work of legislative body
Section 107Disruption of electoral process
Section 107aFraud in connection with elections
Section 107bForgery of election documents
Section 107cViolation of secrecy of ballot
Section 108Coercion of voters
Section 108aDeceiving voters
Section 108bBribing voters
Section 108cIncidental legal consequences
Section 108dScope
Section 108eTaking of bribes by and giving of bribes to elected officials
Chapter 5
Offences against national defence
Section 109Avoiding draft by mutilation
Section 109aAvoiding draft by deception
Sections 109b and 109c(repealed)
Section 109dDisruptive propaganda against Federal Armed Forces
Section 109eSabotage against means of defence
Section 109fIntelligence activity endangering national security
Section 109gImages endangering national security
Section 109hRecruiting for foreign armed forces
Section 109iIncidental consequences
Section 109kConfiscation
Chapter 6
Resistance to state authority
Section 110(repealed)
Section 111Public incitement to commit offences
Section 112(repealed)
Section 113Resistance to enforcement officers
Section 114Assault of enforcement officers
Section 115Resistance to or assault of persons equal to enforcement officers
Sections 116 to 119(repealed)
Section 120Facilitating escape of prisoners
Section 121Mutiny by prisoners
Section 122(repealed)
Chapter 7
Offences against public order
Section 123Trespass
Section 124Aggravated trespass
Section 125Breach of peace
Section 125aEspecially serious breach of peace
Section 126Disturbing public peace by threatening to commit offences
Section 127Forming armed groups
Section 128(repealed)
Section 129Forming criminal organisations
Section 129aForming terrorist organisations
Section 129bForeign criminal and terrorist organisations; confiscation
Section 130Incitement of masses
Section 130aInstructions for committing criminal offences
Section 131Depictions of violence
Section 132Fraudulent exercise of public office
Section 132aAbuse of titles, professional designations and symbols
Section 133Destruction of material in official custody
Section 134Defacing official notices
Section 135(repealed)
Section 136Destruction of objects under seizure; breach of seal
Section 137(repealed)
Section 138Failure to report planned offences
Section 139Exemption from punishment for failure to report planned crimes
Section 140Rewarding and approval of offences
Section 141(repealed)
Section 142Leaving scene of accident
Section 143(repealed)
Section 144(repealed)
Section 145Misuse of emergency numbers and tampering with means of accident prevention and first aid
Section 145aNon-compliance with directions during supervision of conduct
Section 145b(repealed)
Section 145cViolation of disqualification from exercising profession
Section 145dMisleading authorities about commission of offence
Chapter 8
Counterfeiting of money and official stamps
Section 146Counterfeiting of money
Section 147Putting counterfeit money into circulation
Section 148Counterfeiting of official stamps
Section 149Preparing counterfeiting of money or official stamps
Section 150Confiscation
Section 151Securities
Section 152Foreign money, stamps and securities
Section 152aCounterfeiting of payment cards, cheques and promissory notes
Section 152bCounterfeiting of guaranteed payment cards and blank Eurocheques
Chapter 9
False unsworn testimony and perjury
Section 153False unsworn testimony
Section 154Perjury
Section 155Affirmations equivalent to oath
Section 156False declaration in lieu of oath
Section 157Testimony under duress
Section 158Correction of false testimony
Section 159Attempt to abet false testimony
Section 160Subornation of false testimony
Section 161Negligent false oath; negligent false declaration in lieu of oath
Section 162International courts; national committees of inquiry
Section 163(repealed)
Chapter 10
Casting false suspicion
Section 164Casting false suspicion
Section 165Publication of conviction
Chapter 11
Offences relating to religion and ideology
Section 166Revilement of religious faiths and religious and ideological communities
Section 167Disturbance of exercise of religion
Section 167aDisturbance of funeral
Section 168Disturbance of peace of dead
Chapter 12
Offences relating to civil status, marriage and family
Section 169Falsification of civil status
Section 170Breach of maintenance obligation
Section 171Breach of duty of care or upbringing
Section 172Bigamous marriage; bigamous life partnership
Section 173Sexual intercourse between relatives
Chapter 13
Offences against sexual self-determination
Section 174Sexual abuse of persons in one’s charge
Section 174aSexual abuse of prisoners, persons detained by official order, or sick or vulnerable institutionalised persons
Section 174bSexual abuse exploiting official position
Section 174cSexual abuse exploiting counselling, treatment or support relationship
Section 175(repealed)
Section 176Sexual abuse of children
Section 176aAggravated sexual abuse of children
Section 176bSexual abuse of children resulting in death
Section 177Sexual assault; sexual coercion; rape
Section 178Sexual assault, sexual coercion and rape resulting in death
Section 179(repealed)
Section 180Promotion of sexual acts by minors
Section 180aExploitation of prostitutes
Sections 180b and 181(repealed)
Section 181aPimping
Section 181bSupervision of conduct
Section 181c(repealed)
Section 182Sexual abuse of juveniles
Section 183Acts of exhibitionism
Section 183aCausing public nuisance
Section 184Dissemination of pornography
Section 184aDissemination of pornography depicting violent acts or sexual acts with animals
Section 184bDissemination, procurement and possession of child pornography
Section 184cDissemination, procurement and possession of youth pornography
Section 184dMaking pornographic content available through broadcasting or telemedia services; accessing child or youth pornographic content via telemedia
Section 184eOrganisation and attendance of presentations of child and youth pornography
Section 184fUnlawful prostitution
Section 184gProstitution likely to corrupt juveniles
Section 184hDefinitions
Section 184iSexual harassment
Section 184jOffences committed out of groups
Chapter 14
Insult
Section 185Insult
Section 186Malicious gossip (üble Nachrede)
Section 187Defamation
Section 188Malicious gossip and defamation in relation to persons in political life
Section 189Defiling memory of dead
Section 190Proof of truth by criminal judgment
Section 191(repealed)
Section 192Insult despite proof of truth
Section 193Safeguarding legitimate interests
Section 194Request to prosecute
Sections 195 to 198(repealed)
Section 199Mutual exchange of insults
Section 200Publication of conviction
Chapter 15
Violation of privacy of personal and private sphere
Section 201Violation of privacy of spoken word
Section 201aViolation of intimate privacy by taking photographs or other images
Section 202Violation of privacy of correspondence
Section 202aData espionage
Section 202bPhishing
Section 202cActs preparatory to data espionage and phishing
Section 202dHandling stolen data
Section 203Violation of private secrets
Section 204Exploitation of another’s secrets
Section 205Request to prosecute
Section 206Violation of secrecy of post or telecommunications
Sections 207 to 210(repealed)
Chapter 16
Offences against life
Section 211Murder under specific aggravating circumstances (Mord)
Section 212Murder (Totschlag)
Section 213Less serious case of murder
Sections 214 and 215(repealed)
Section 216Killing upon request
Section 217Facilitating suicide as recurring pursuit
Section 218Abortion
Section 218aExemption from punishment for abortion
Section 218bAbortion without medical certification; incorrect medical certification
Section 218cBreach of medical duties in connection with abortion
Section 219Counselling of pregnant woman in emergency or conflict situation
Section 219aAdvertising abortion
Section 219bPutting on market of substances used in abortion
Section 219c(repealed)
Section 219d(repealed)
Section 220(repealed)
Section 220a(repealed)
Section 221Abandonment
Section 222Negligent killing
Chapter 17
Offences against physical integrity
Section 223Bodily harm
Section 224Dangerous bodily harm
Section 225Ill-treatment of persons in one’s charge
Section 226Grievous bodily harm
Section 226aFemale genital mutilation
Section 227Bodily harm resulting in death
Section 228Consent
Section 229Negligent bodily harm
Section 230Request to prosecute
Section 231Taking part in brawl
Chapter 18
Offences against personal liberty
Section 232Human trafficking
Section 232aForced prostitution
Section 232bForced labour
Section 233Exploitation of labour
Section 233aExploitation involving deprivation of liberty
Section 233bSupervision of conduct
Section 234Kidnapping
Section 234aAbduction abroad
Section 235Child theft
Section 236Child trafficking
Section 237Forced marriage
Section 238Stalking
Section 239Unlawful imprisonment
Section 239aAbduction for purpose of extortion
Section 239bHostage-taking
Section 239cSupervision of conduct
Section 240Coercion (Nötigung)
Section 241Threatening commission of serious criminal offence
Section 241aCasting political suspicion
Chapter 19
Theft and misappropriation
Section 242Theft
Section 243Aggravated theft
Section 244Armed theft; gang theft; theft by burglary of dwellings
Section 244aAggravated gang theft
Section 245Supervision of conduct
Section 246Misappropriation
Section 247Theft from relatives or persons living in same household
Section 248(repealed)
Section 248aTheft and misappropriation of property of minor value
Section 248bUnauthorised use of vehicle
Section 248cTapping of electrical energy
Chapter 20
Robbery and extortion
Section 249Robbery
Section 250Aggravated robbery
Section 251Robbery resulting in death
Section 252Theft using force or threats to retain possession of stolen property
Section 253Extortion
Section 254(repealed)
Section 255Extortion with use of force or threat of force
Section 256Supervision of conduct
Chapter 21
Aiding after the fact and handling stolen goods
Section 257Aiding after the fact
Section 258Obstruction of prosecution or punishment
Section 258aObstruction of prosecution or punishment in public office
Section 259Handling stolen goods
Section 260Commercial handling of stolen goods; handling as member of gang
Section 260aCommercial handling as member of gang
Section 261Money laundering; concealing unlawfully acquired assets
Section 262Supervision of conduct
Chapter 22
Fraud and embezzlement
Section 263Fraud
Section 263aComputer fraud
Section 264Subsidy fraud
Section 264aCapital investment fraud
Section 265Insurance fraud
Section 265aObtaining benefits by deception
Section 265bCredit fraud
Section 265cSports betting fraud
Section 265dManipulation of professional sports competitions
Section 265eEspecially serious cases of sports betting fraud and manipulation of professional sports competitions
Section 266Embezzlement
Section 266aWithholding wages and salaries
Section 266bMisuse of cheque and credit cards
Chapter 23
Forgery of documents
Section 267Forgery of documents
Section 268Forgery of technical records
Section 269Forgery of data of probative value
Section 270Deception in relation to data processing in legal commerce
Section 271Causing false records
Section 272(repealed)
Section 273Tampering with official identity documents
Section 274Suppression of documents; changing border mark
Section 275Preparing forgery of official identity documents
Section 276Procurement of false official identity documents
Section 276aResidence papers; vehicle documents
Section 277Forgery of health certificates
Section 278Issuance of incorrect health certificates
Section 279Use of incorrect health certificates
Section 280(repealed)
Section 281Misuse of identity papers
Section 282Confiscation
Chapter 24
Offences in state of insolvency
Section 283Bankruptcy
Section 283aEspecially serious case of bankruptcy
Section 283bBreach of book-keeping duties
Section 283cPreferential treatment of creditors
Section 283dPreferential treatment of debtors
Chapter 25
Criminal self-interest
Section 284Organising illicit gaming
Section 285Participation in illicit gaming
Section 286Confiscation
Section 287Organising illicit lottery or raffle
Section 288Obstruction of enforcement
Section 289Taking pawns
Section 290Unauthorised use of pledged property
Section 291Usury
Section 292Game poaching
Section 293Fish poaching
Section 294Request to prosecute
Section 295Confiscation
Section 296(repealed)
Section 297Endangering ships, motor vehicles and aircraft through prohibited goods
Chapter 26
Offences against competition
Section 298Collusive tendering
Section 299Taking and giving bribes in commercial practice
Section 299aTaking bribes in healthcare sector
Section 299bGiving bribes in healthcare sector
Section 300Especially serious cases of taking and giving bribes in commercial practice and healthcare sector
Section 301Request to prosecute
Section 302(repealed)
Chapter 27
Criminal damage
Section 303Criminal damage
Section 303aData manipulation
Section 303bComputer sabotage
Section 303cRequest to prosecute
Section 304Criminal damage to objects of public interest
Section 305Destruction of buildings and structures
Section 305aDestruction of important work equipment
Chapter 28
Offences constituting public danger
Section 306Arson
Section 306aAggravated arson
Section 306bEspecially aggravated arson
Section 306cArson resulting in death
Section 306dNegligent arson
Section 306eActive remorse
Section 306fCausing fire hazard
Section 307Causing nuclear explosion
Section 308Causing explosion
Section 309Misuse of ionising radiation
Section 310Preparing explosion or radiation offence
Section 311Releasing ionising radiation
Section 312Faulty construction of nuclear facility
Section 313Causing flooding
Section 314Causing public danger by poisoning
Section 314aActive remorse
Section 315Dangerous interference with rail, ship and air traffic
Section 315aEndangering rail, ship and air traffic
Section 315bDangerous interference with road traffic
Section 315cEndangering road traffic
Section 315dIllegal motor racing
Section 315eRail traffic on roads
Section 315fConfiscation
Section 316Driving under influence of drink or drugs
Section 316aAttacking driver to commit robbery
Section 316bDisruption of public services
Section 316cAttacks on air and maritime traffic
Section 317Disruption of telecommunications systems
Section 318Causing damage to important facilities
Section 319Dangerous construction practices
Section 320Active remorse
Section 321Supervision of conduct
Section 322Confiscation
Section 323(repealed)
Section 323aIntoxication
Section 323bJeopardising addiction treatment
Section 323cFailure to render assistance; obstruction of persons rendering assistance
Chapter 29
Offences against environment
Section 324Water pollution
Section 324aSoil pollution
Section 325Air pollution
Section 325aCausing noise, vibrations and non-ionising radiation
Section 326Unauthorised waste management
Section 327Unauthorised operation of facilities
Section 328Unauthorised handling of radioactive substances and other hazardous substances and goods
Section 329Endangering protected areas
Section 330Especially serious offences against environment
Section 330aCausing severe danger by releasing poisons
Section 330bActive remorse
Section 330cConfiscation
Section 330dDefinitions
Chapter 30
Offences committed in public office
Section 331Accepting benefits
Section 332Taking bribes
Section 333Granting benefits
Section 334Giving bribes
Section 335Especially serious cases of taking and giving bribes
Section 335aForeign and international officials
Section 336Omission of official act
Section 337Remuneration for arbitrators
Section 338(repealed)
Section 339Judicial perversion of justice
Section 340Bodily harm in public office
Sections 341 and 342(repealed)
Section 343Extortion of testimony
Section 344Prosecution of innocent persons
Section 345Enforcement against innocent persons
Sections 346 and 347(repealed)
Section 348Making false records in public office
Sections 349 to 351(repealed)
Section 352Demanding excessive fees
Section 353Levying excessive taxes; benefit reduction
Section 353aBreach of trust in Foreign Service
Section 353bBreach of official secrecy and special obligation of secrecy
Section 353c(repealed)
Section 353dUnlawful disclosure concerning judicial hearings
Section 354(repealed)
Section 355Breach of tax secrecy
Section 356Betrayal of client
Section 357Incitement of subordinate to commit offence
Section 358Incidental legal consequences