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German Civil Code

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Übersetzung durch den Langenscheidt Übersetzungsservice, aktualisiert durch Neil Mussett. Zuletzt aktualisiert und bearbeitet durch Samson Übersetzungen GmbH, Dr. Carmen v. Schöning.

Translation provided by Langenscheidt Übersetzungsservice, updated by Neil Mussett. The translation has most recently been revised and updated by Samson Übersetzungen GmbH, Dr. Carmen v. Schöning.

Stand: Die Übersetzung berücksichtigt die Änderung(en) des Gesetzes durch Artikel 1 des Gesetzes vom 10. August 2021 (BGBl. I S. 3515).
Der Stand der deutschsprachigen Dokumentation kann aktueller sein. Vergleichen Sie dazu bitte http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bgb/BJNR001950896.html.

Version information: The translation includes the amendment(s) to the Act by Article 1 of the Act of 10 August 2021 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 3515).
Translations may not be updated at the same time as the German legal provisions displayed on this website. To compare with the current status of the German version, see http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bgb/BJNR001950896.html.

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Book 1
General part
Division 1
Title 1
Natural persons, consumers, traders
Section 1Beginning of legal capacity
Section 2Beginning of majority
Sections 3 – 6(repealed)
Section 7Residence; establishment and termination
Section 8Residence of persons who lack full capacity to contract
Section 9Residence of a soldier
Section 10(repealed)
Section 11Residence of a child
Section 12Right to a name
Section 13Consumer
Section 14Trader
Sections 15 - 20(repealed)
Title 2
Legal persons
Subtitle 1
Chapter 1
General provisions
Section 21Non-commercial association
Section 22Commercial association
Section 23(repealed)
Section 24Seat
Section 25Constitution
Section 26Board and representation
Section 27Appointment of and management by the board
Section 28Passing of resolutions by the board
Section 29Emergency appointment by local court
Section 30Special representatives
Section 31Liability of an association for organs
Section 31aLiability of members of organs and special representatives
Section 31bLiability of members of the association
Section 32General meeting; passing of resolutions
Section 33Amendment of articles of association
Section 34Exclusion from voting
Section 35Special rights
Section 36Convening the general meeting
Section 37Convening a meeting at the request of a minority
Section 38Membership
Section 39Leaving the association
Section 40Flexible provisions
Section 41Dissolution of the association
Section 42Insolvency
Section 43Deprivation of legal personality
Section 44Jurisdiction and procedure
Section 45Devolution of the assets of the association
Section 46Devolution on the treasury
Section 47Liquidation
Section 48Liquidators
Section 49Duties of the liquidators
Section 50Notice by publication of the association in liquidation
Section 50aNewspaper for notices
Section 51One-year waiting period
Section 52Security for creditors
Section 53Liability in damages of the liquidators
Section 54Associations without legal personality
Chapter 2
Registered associations
Section 55Jurisdiction over entry in the register
Section 55aElectronic register of associations
Section 56Minimum number of members of the association
Section 57Minimum requirements of the articles of association
Section 58Recommended contents of the articles of association
Section 59Application for registration
Section 60Rejection of the application
Sections 61 - 63(repealed)
Section 64Contents of the entry in the register of associations
Section 65Addition to name
Section 66Notice by publication of the entry and safekeeping of documents
Section 67Changes to the board
Section 68Protection of public confidence by the register of associations
Section 69Documentary proof of composition of the board
Section 70Protection of public confidence in case of entries on power of agency
Section 71Amendments of the articles of association
Section 72Certificate on number of members
Section 73Decrease to below the minimum number of members
Section 74Dissolution
Section 75Entries in the case of insolvency
Section 76Register entries in the event of liquidation
Section 77Parties obliged to apply for entry in the register and form of applications
Section 78Assessment of coercive fines
Section 79Inspection of the register of associations
Section 79aApplication of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 to registration proceedings
Subtitle 2
Section 80Formation of a foundation having legal personality
Section 81Endowment transaction
Section 82Duty of founder to make transfers
Section 83Testamentary foundation
Section 84Recognition after the death of the founder
Section 85Constitution of foundation
Section 86Application of law on associations
Section 87Change of objects; termination
Section 88Devolution of assets
Subtitle 3
Legal persons under public law
Section 89Liability for organs; insolvency
Division 2
Things and animals
Section 90Concept of the thing
Section 90aAnimals
Section 91Fungible things
Section 92Consumable things
Section 93Essential parts of a thing
Section 94Essential parts of a plot of land or a building
Section 95Merely temporary purpose
Section 96Rights as parts of a plot of land
Section 97Accessories
Section 98Commercial and agricultural inventory
Section 99Fruits
Section 100Emoluments
Section 101Division of fruits
Section 102Reimbursement of costs of production
Section 103Allocation of charges
Division 3
Legal transactions
Title 1
Capacity to contract
Section 104Incapacity to contract
Section 105Voidness of declaration of intent
Section 105aEveryday transactions
Section 106Limited capacity for minors to contract
Section 107Consent of legal representative
Section 108Entry into a contract without consent
Section 109Right of withdrawal by the other party
Section 110Performance effected with means of the minor’s own
Section 111Unilateral legal transactions
Section 112Independent operation of a trade or business
Section 113Service or employment relationship
Sections 114, 115(repealed)
Title 2
Declaration of intent
Section 116Mental reservation
Section 117Sham transaction
Section 118Lack of seriousness
Section 119Voidability for mistake
Section 120Voidability for incorrect transmission
Section 121Period for avoidance
Section 122Liability in damages of the person avoiding a declaration
Section 123Voidability on the grounds of deceit or duress
Section 124Period of time for avoidance
Section 125Voidness resulting from a defect of form
Section 126Written form
Section 126aElectronic form
Section 126bText form
Section 127Agreed form
Section 127aCourt settlement
Section 128Notarial recording
Section 129Official certification
Section 130Effectiveness of a declaration of intent to absent parties
Section 131Effectiveness in relation to persons without full capacity to contract
Section 132Substitution of service for receipt
Section 133Interpretation of a declaration of intent
Section 134Statutory prohibition
Section 135Statutory prohibition of alienation
Section 136Official prohibition of alienation
Section 137Prohibition of dispositions in a legal transaction
Section 138Legal transaction offending common decency; usury
Section 139Partial invalidity
Section 140Re-interpretation
Section 141Confirmation of a void legal transaction
Section 142Effect of avoidance
Section 143Declaration of avoidance
Section 144Confirmation of a voidable legal transaction
Title 3
Section 145Binding effect of an offer
Section 146Expiry of an offer
Section 147Period for acceptance
Section 148Fixing a period for acceptance
Section 149Late receipt of a declaration of acceptance
Section 150Late acceptance and acceptance altering the offer
Section 151Acceptance without declaration to the offeror
Section 152Acceptance in the case of notarial recording
Section 153Death of the offeror or offeror’s incapacity to contract
Section 154Overt lack of agreement; lack of notarial recording
Section 155Hidden lack of agreement
Section 156Entry into contracts at auctions
Section 157Interpretation of contracts
Title 4
Conditions and specification of time
Section 158Conditions precedent and subsequent
Section 159Retroactive effect
Section 160Liability during the period pending fulfilment of the condition
Section 161Ineffectiveness of dispositions in the period pending fulfilment of the condition
Section 162Prevention of or bringing about the satisfaction of the condition
Section 163Specification of time
Title 5
Agency and authority
Section 164Effect of a declaration made by the agent
Section 165Agent with limited capacity to contract
Section 166Vitiation of intent; imputed knowledge
Section 167Conferment of authority
Section 168Expiry of authority
Section 169Authority of the authorised representative and the managing partner
Section 170Period of effectiveness of the authority
Section 171Period of effectiveness in the case of announcement
Section 172Letter of authorisation
Section 173Period of effectiveness in the case of knowledge and negligent lack of knowledge
Section 174Unilateral legal transaction by an authorised representative
Section 175Return of the letter of authorisation
Section 176Declaration of invalidity of the letter of authorisation
Section 177Entry into contract by a representative having no power of agency
Section 178Right of revocation of the other party
Section 179Liability of a representative having no power of agency
Section 180Unilateral legal transactions
Section 181Contracting with oneself
Title 6
Consent and ratification
Section 182Approval
Section 183Revocability of consent
Section 184Retroactive effect of ratification
Section 185Disposition by an unauthorised person
Division 4
Periods of time and fixed dates
Section 186Scope of applicability
Section 187Beginning of a period of time
Section 188End of a period of time
Section 189Calculation of individual periods of time
Section 190Extension of a period of time
Section 191Calculation of periods of time
Section 192Beginning, middle and end of a month
Section 193Sundays and holidays; Saturdays
Division 5
Title 1
Subject-matter and duration of limitation
Section 194Subject-matter of limitation
Section 195Standard limitation period
Section 196Limitation period for rights to a plot of land
Section 197Thirty-year limitation period
Section 198Limitation in the case of a successor in title
Section 199Commencement of the standard limitation period and maximum limitation periods
Section 200Commencement of other limitation periods
Section 201Commencement of the limitation period for recognised claims
Section 202Inadmissibility of agreements on limitation
Title 2
Suspension, suspension of expiry and recommencement of the limitation period
Section 203Suspension of limitation in the case of negotiations
Section 204Suspension of limitation as a result of prosecution of rights
Section 205Suspension of limitation in the case of a right to refuse performance
Section 206Suspension of limitation in case of force majeure
Section 207Suspension of limitation for reasons of family relationship and similar reasons
Section 208Suspension of limitation in the case of claims for infringement of the right to sexual self-determination
Section 209Effect of suspension
Section 210Suspension of expiry of the limitation period in the case of persons without full capacity to contract
Section 211Suspension of expiry of the limitation period in matters relating to estates
Section 212Recommencement of the limitation period
Section 213Suspension, suspension of expiry of the limitation period and recommencement of limitation in the case of other claims
Title 3
Legal consequences of limitation
Section 214Effect of limitation
Section 215Set-off and right of retention after a claim is statute-barred
Section 216Effect of limitation in the case of secured claims
Section 217Limitation of collateral performance
Section 218Ineffectiveness of rescission
Sections 219 to 225(repealed)
Division 6
Exercise of rights, self-defence, self-help
Section 226Prohibition of chicanery
Section 227Self-defence against persons
Section 228Necessity
Section 229Self-help
Section 230Limits of self-help
Section 231Self-help by mistake
Division 7
Provision of security
Section 232Types
Section 233Effect of deposit
Section 234Suitable securities
Section 235Right to exchange
Section 236Book-entry securities
Section 237Movable things
Section 238Mortgages, land charges and annuity land charges
Section 239Surety
Section 240Duty to supplement security
Book 2
Law of obligations
Division 1
Subject matter of obligations
Title 1
Duty to render performance
Section 241Duties arising from an obligation
Section 241aUnsolicited performance
Section 242Performance in good faith
Section 243Obligation described by class
Section 244Foreign currency obligation
Section 245Obligation payable in a specific denomination of money
Section 246Statutory interest rate
Section 247Basic rate of interest
Section 248Compound interest
Section 249Nature and extent of compensation of damages
Section 250Damages in money after the specification of a period of time
Section 251Damages in money without the specification of a period of time
Section 252Lost profits
Section 253Intangible damage
Section 254Contributory negligence
Section 255Assignment of claims to compensation
Section 256Payment of interest on expenses
Section 257Claim to release
Section 258Right of removal
Section 259Extent of duty to render accounts
Section 260Duties when surrendering objects or providing information on an aggregate of objects
Section 261Modification of a declaration in lieu of an oath; costs
Section 262Alternative obligation; right of choice
Section 263Exercise of the right of choice; effect
Section 264Default by the person entitled to the right of choice
Section 265Impossibility in case of alternative obligations
Section 266Part performance
Section 267Performance by third parties
Section 268Right of redemption of a third party
Section 269Place of performance
Section 270Place of payment
Section 270aAgreements on fees for the use of non-cash means of payment
Section 271Time of performance
Section 271aAgreements on payment deadlines, verification periods or periods for acceptance
Section 272Interim interest
Section 273Right of retention
Section 274Effects of the right of retention
Section 275Exclusion of the duty of performance
Section 276Responsibility of the obligor
Section 277Standard of care in one’s own affairs
Section 278Responsibility of the obligor for third parties
Section 279(repealed)
Section 280Damages for breach of duty
Section 281Damages in lieu of performance for non-performance or failure to render performance as owed
Section 282Damages in lieu of performance for breach of a duty under section 241 (2)
Section 283Damages in lieu of performance where the duty of performance is excluded
Section 284Reimbursement of futile expenses
Section 285Surrender of substitute benefit
Section 286Default of the obligor
Section 287Responsibility during default
Section 288Default interest and other damage caused by default *)
Section 289Prohibition of compound interest
Section 290Interest on compensation for value
Section 291Interest during legal proceedings
Section 292Liability in the case of a duty to surrender
Title 2
Default by the obligee
Section 293Default in acceptance
Section 294Actual offer
Section 295Verbal offer
Section 296Dispensability of the offer
Section 297Inability of the obligor
Section 298Concurrent performance
Section 299Temporary prevention of acceptance
Section 300Effects of default by the obligee
Section 301Cessation of interest
Section 302Emoluments
Section 303Right to abandon possession
Section 304Compensation for extra expenses
Division 2
Drafting contractual obligations by means of standard business terms
Section 305Incorporation of standard business terms into the contract
Section 305aIncorporation in special cases
Section 305bPriority of individually agreed terms
Section 305cSurprising and ambiguous clauses
Section 306Legal consequences of non-incorporation and ineffectiveness
Section 306aProhibition of circumvention
Section 307Test of reasonableness of contents
Section 308Prohibited clauses with the possibility of valuation
Section 309Prohibited clauses without the possibility of valuation
Section 310Scope of application
Division 3
Contractual obligations
Title 1
Creation, subject matter and termination
Subtitle 1
Section 311Obligations created by legal transaction and obligations similar to legal transactions
Section 311aImpediment preventing performance at conclusion of contract
Section 311bContracts on plots of land, assets and an estate
Section 311cApplication to accessories
Subtitle 2
Principles applying to consumer contracts; particular types of sale
Chapter 1
Scope of application and principles applying to consumer contracts
Section 312Scope of application
Section 312aGeneral obligations and principles applying to consumer contracts; limits to the agreement of remuneration
Chapter 2
Off-premises contracts and distance contracts
Section 312bOff-premises contracts
Section 312cDistance contracts
Section 312dObligations to provide information
Section 312eViolation of information obligations as to costs
Section 312fCopies and confirmations
Section 312gRight of withdrawal
Section 312hTermination and authorisation to terminate
Chapter 3
Contracts concluded in electronic commerce
Section 312iGeneral obligations in electronic commerce
Section 312jSpecial obligations vis-à-vis consumers in electronic commerce
Chapter 4
Deviating agreements and burden of proof
Section 312kDeviating agreements and burden of proof
Subtitle 3
Adaptation and ending of contracts
Section 313Interference with the basis of the transaction
Section 314Termination, for a compelling reason, of contracts for the performance of a continuing obligation
Subtitle 4
Unilateral rights to specify performance
Section 315Specification of performance by one party
Section 316Specification of consideration
Section 317Specification of performance by a third party
Section 318Avoidance of specification
Section 319Ineffectiveness of the specification; substitution
Title 2
Reciprocal contract
Section 320Defence of unperformed contract
Section 321Defence of uncertainty
Section 322Order to perform in return for, and concurrently with, performance
Section 323Rescission for non-performance or for performance not as contractually agreed
Section 324Rescission for breach of a duty under section 241 (2)
Section 325Damages and revocation
Section 326Release from consideration and rescission where the duty of performance is excluded
Title 2a
Contracts on digital products
Subtitle 1
Consumer contracts on digital products
Section 327Scope of application
Section 327aApplication to bundle contracts and contracts relating to things with digital elements
Section 327bSupply of digital products
Section 327cRights in the case of failure to effect supply
Section 327dConformity of digital products
Section 327eProduct deficiency
Section 327fUpdates
Section 327gDefect of title
Section 327hDeviating agreements on product features
Section 327iRights of the consumer in the case of deficiencies
Section 327jLimitation
Section 327kShifting the burden of proof
Section 327lCure
Section 327mTermination of the contract and compensation of damages
Section 327nAbatement
Section 327oDeclaration of termination of contract and its legal consequences
Section 327pContinued use following termination of the contract
Section 327qConsequences under contract law of declarations governed by data protection law made by the consumer
Section 327rModifications of digital products
Section 327sDeviating agreements
Subtitle 2
Special provisions on contracts on digital products between traders
Section 327tScope of application
Section 327uRecourse of the trader
Title 3
Promise of performance to a third party
Section 328Contract for the benefit of third parties
Section 329Interpretation rule where there is an assumption of the duty to perform
Section 330Interpretation rule in the case of life annuity contracts
Section 331Performance after death
Section 332Modification by disposition mortis causa in case of reservation
Section 333Rejection of the right by the third party
Section 334Objections of the obligor in relation to the third party
Section 335Right of the promisee to make demands
Title 4
Earnest, penalty for breach of contract
Section 336Interpretation of earnest
Section 337Crediting or return of the earnest
Section 338Earnest in case of impossibility of performance for which the giver of earnest is responsible
Section 339Payability of penalty for breach of contract
Section 340Promise to pay a penalty for non-performance
Section 341Promise of a penalty for improper performance
Section 342Alternatives to monetary penalty
Section 343Reduction of the penalty
Section 344Ineffective promise of a penalty
Section 345Burden of proof
Title 5
Revocation; right of withdrawal in consumer contracts
Subtitle 1
Section 346Effects of rescission
Section 347Emoluments and outlays after rescission
Section 348Satisfaction of obligations in return for, and concurrently with, performance
Section 349Declaration of rescission
Section 350Expiry of the right of rescission after a period of time has been specified
Section 351Indivisibility of the right of rescission
Section 352Set-off after non-performance
Section 353Rescission in return for forfeit money
Section 354Forfeiture of rights
Subtitle 2
Right of withdrawal in the case of consumer contracts
Section 355Right of withdrawal in the case of consumer contracts
Section 356Right of withdrawal in the case of off-premises contracts and distance contracts
Section 356aRight of withdrawal in the case of timeshare contracts, long-term holiday product contracts, brokerage contracts, and exchange system contracts
Section 356bRight of withdrawal in the case of consumer credit agreements
Section 356cRight of withdrawal in the case of contracts for delivery by instalments
Section 356dWithdrawal right of the consumer in the case of credit agreements for a gratuitous loan and in the case of gratuitous financial accommodation
Section 356eRight of withdrawal in the case of construction contracts with consumers
Section 357Legal consequences of the withdrawal from off-premises contracts and distance contracts, to the exception of contracts relating to financial services
Section 357aLegal consequences of the withdrawal from contracts relating to financial services
Section 357bLegal consequences of the withdrawal from timeshare, long-term holiday product, brokerage contracts, and exchange system contracts
Section 357cLegal consequences of the withdrawal from contracts for delivery by instalments that are neither distance contracts nor off-premises contracts
Section 357dLegal consequences of the withdrawal from a construction contract with a consumer
Section 358Contracts linked to the contract from which the consumer has withdrawn
Section 359Objections in the case of linked contracts
Section 360Related contracts
Section 361Further claims, deviating agreements and burden of proof
Division 4
Extinction of obligations
Title 1
Section 362Extinction by performance
Section 363Burden of proof in the case of acceptance as performance of contract
Section 364Acceptance in lieu of performance of contract
Section 365Warranty in the case of handover in lieu of performance of contract
Section 366Crediting of performance to more than one claim
Section 367Crediting to interest and costs
Section 368Receipt
Section 369Costs of the receipt
Section 370Performance to the bringer of the receipt
Section 371Return of the certificate of indebtedness
Title 2
Section 372Prerequisites
Section 373Concurrent performance
Section 374Place of deposit; duty to notify
Section 375Retroactive effect with dispatch by mail
Section 376Right to take back
Section 377Unpledgeability of the right to take back
Section 378Effect of deposit where taking back is excluded
Section 379Effect of deposit where taking back is not excluded
Section 380Proof of entitlement to receive
Section 381Costs of deposit
Section 382Extinction of the right of the obligee
Section 383Auction of things not capable of deposit
Section 384Warning of auction
Section 385Sale by private agreement
Section 386Costs of the auction
Title 3
Section 387Prerequisites
Section 388Declaration of set-off
Section 389Effect of set-off
Section 390No set-off against a claim subject to a defence
Section 391Set-off in the case of different places of performance
Section 392Set-off against a seized claim
Section 393No set-off against a claim in tort
Section 394No set-off against an unpledgeable claim
Section 395Set-off against claims of public-law corporations
Section 396More than one claim
Title 4
Section 397Contract of forgiveness, acknowledgement of non-indebtedness
Division 5
Transfer of a claim
Section 398Assignment
Section 399Exclusion of assignment in case of change of content or by agreement
Section 400Exclusion in case of unpledgeable claims
Section 401Devolution of accessory rights and preferential rights
Section 402Duty to provide information; provision of documents
Section 403Duty of notarial recording
Section 404Objections by the obligor
Section 405Assignment with presentation of documents
Section 406Set-off in relation to the new obligee
Section 407Legal acts in relation to the previous obligee
Section 408Multiple assignments
Section 409Notice of assignment
Section 410Delivery of the assignment document
Section 411Assignment of salary
Section 412Statutory devolution of claims
Section 413Transfer of other rights
Division 6
Assumption of debt
Section 414Contract between obligee and transferee
Section 415Contract between obligor and transferee
Section 416Assumption of a mortgage debt
Section 417Objections of the transferee
Section 418Extinction of security rights and preferential rights
Section 419(repealed)
Division 7
More than one obligor and obligee
Section 420Divisible performance
Section 421Joint and several debtors
Section 422Effect of performance
Section 423Effect of forgiveness
Section 424Effect of default by the obligee
Section 425Effect of other facts
Section 426Duty to adjust advancements, devolution of claim
Section 427Joint contractual duty
Section 428Joint and several obligees
Section 429Effect of changes
Section 430Duty of the joint and several obligees to adjust advancements
Section 431More than one obligor of indivisible performance
Section 432More than one obligee of indivisible performance
Division 8
Particular types of obligations
Title 1
Purchase, exchange
Subtitle 1
General provisions
Section 433Contractual duties typical for a purchase agreement
Section 434Material defects
Section 435Defects of title
Section 436Public charges on plots of land
Section 437Rights of buyer in the case of defects
Section 438Limitation of claims for defects
Section 439Cure
Section 440Special provisions on rescission and damages
Section 441Abatement of price
Section 442Knowledge of the buyer
Section 443Guarantee
Section 444Exclusion of liability
Section 445Limitation of liability in the case of public auctions
Section 445aRecourse of the seller
Section 445bLimitation of recourse claims
Section 445cRecourse in the case of contracts on digital products
Section 446Devolution of risk and of charges
Section 447Devolution of risk in the case of sales shipment
Section 448Costs of delivery and comparable costs
Section 449Retention of title
Section 450Excluded buyers in the case of certain sales
Section 451Purchase by excluded buyer
Section 452Purchase of a ship
Section 453Purchase of rights, consumer contract on the purchase of digital content
Subtitle 2
Special types of purchase
Chapter 1
Purchase on approval
Section 454Coming into existence of the purchase agreement
Section 455Approval period
Chapter 2
Section 456Coming into existence of the repurchase agreement
Section 457Liability of the reseller
Section 458Removal of third-party rights
Section 459Reimbursement of outlays
Section 460Repurchase at estimated value
Section 461More than one person entitled to repurchase
Section 462Cut-off period
Chapter 3
Section 463Prerequisites for exercise
Section 464Exercise of the right of preemption
Section 465Ineffective agreements
Section 466Collateral performance
Section 467Total price
Section 468Deferral of the purchase price
Section 469Duty to notify, exercise period
Section 470Sale to heir on intestacy
Section 471Sale in case of compulsory enforcement or insolvency
Section 472More than one person with a right of preemption
Section 473Non-transferability
Subtitle 3
Purchase of consumer goods
Section 474Purchase of consumer goods
Section 475Applicable provisions
Section 475aContract for the sale of consumer goods relating to digital products
Section 475bMaterial defect of a good with digital elements
Section 475cMaterial defect of a good with digital elements where the digital elements are supplied on a continuous basis
Section 475dSpecial provisions on rescission and compensation of damages
Section 475eSpecial provisions on limitation
Section 476Deviating agreements
Section 477Shifting the burden of proof
Section 478Special provisions concerning recourse by the trader
Section 479Special provisions for guarantees
Subtitle 4
Section 480Exchange
Title 2
Timeshare contracts, long-term holiday product contracts, brokerage contracts and exchange system contracts
Section 481Time share contracts
Section 481aLong-term holiday product contract
Section 481bFacilitation contract, exchange system contract
Section 482Preliminary contract information, advertising and prohibition of sale as an investment
Section 482aInstructions on the right of withdrawal
Section 483Language of the contract and of the pre-contractual information
Section 484Form and content of the contract
Section 485Right of withdrawal
Section 486Prohibition of down payment
Section 486aSpecial provisions for long-term holiday product contracts
Section 487Deviating agreements
Title 3
Loan contract; financial accommodation and contracts for delivery by instalments between a trader and a consumer
Subtitle 1
Loan contract
Chapter 1
General provisions
Section 488Contractual duties typical for a credit agreement
Section 489Right of the borrower to give notice of termination in accordance with usual procedure
Section 490Right to terminate for cause
Chapter 2
Special provisions for consumer credit agreements
Section 491Consumer credit agreement
Section 491aPreliminary contract information obligations with consumer credit agreements
Section 492Written form, contents of the contract
Section 492aTying practices in the case of consumer credit agreements relating to immovable property
Section 492bPermissible tying practices
Section 493Information during the contractual relationship
Section 494Legal consequences of defects of form
Section 495Right of withdrawal; reflection period
Section 496Waiver of objections, prohibition of bills of exchange and cheques
Section 497Default of the borrower
Section 498Calling in entire loan in the case of loans repayable in instalments
Section 499Right of the lender to terminate; right to refuse performance
Section 500Termination right of the borrower; early repayment
Section 501Cost reduction in the case of early repayment and in the case of termination
Section 502Compensation for early repayment of a loan
Section 503Conversion to an alternative currency of a foreign-currency consumer credit agreement relating to immovable property
Section 504Granted overdraft
Section 504aObligation to provide advisory services where the overdraft facility is used
Section 505Tolerated overdraft
Section 505aObligation to perform a creditworthiness assessment for consumer credit agreements
Section 505bBasis of the creditworthiness assessment in the case of consumer credit agreements
Section 505cFurther obligations in the case of consumer credit agreements relating to immovable property secured by a mortgage or by a charge on land
Section 505dBreach of the obligation to conduct an assessment of creditworthiness
Section 505eAuthorisation to issue statutory instruments
Subtitle 2
Financial accommodation between a trader and a consumer
Section 506Deferment of payment, other financial accommodation
Section 507Instalment payment transactions
Section 508Revocation with regard to instalment payment transactions
Section 509(repealed)
Subtitle 3
Contracts for delivery by instalments between a trader and a consumer
Section 510Contracts for delivery by instalments
Subtitle 4
Advisory services provided in the case of consumer credit agreements relating to immovable property
Section 511Advisory services provided in the case of consumer credit agreements relating to immovable property
Subtitle 5
Mandatory nature, application to founders of new businesses
Section 512Deviating agreements
Section 513Application to founders of new businesses
Subtitle 6
Gratuitous credit agreements and gratuitous financial accommodation between a trader and a consumer
Section 514Gratuitous credit agreements
Section 515Gratuitous financial accommodation
Title 4
Section 516Concept of donation
Section 516aConsumer contract on the donation of digital products
Section 517Failure to acquire assets
Section 518Form of promise of donation
Section 519Defence of paying for necessaries
Section 520Expiry of the promise of an annuity
Section 521Liability of the donor
Section 522No default interest
Section 523Liability for defects of title
Section 524Liability for material defects
Section 525Donation subject to conditions
Section 526Refusal to fulfil the condition
Section 527Non-fulfilment of the condition
Section 528Claim for return due to impoverishment of the donor
Section 529Exclusion of claim for return
Section 530Revocation of donation
Section 531Declaration of revocation
Section 532Exclusion of revocation
Section 533Waiver of the right of revocation
Section 534Donations for duty and decency
Title 5
Lease, usufructuary lease
Subtitle 1
General provisions for leases
Section 535Contents and primary duties of the lease agreement
Section 536Abatement of the rent for material defects and defects of title
Section 536aClaim of lessee for damages and reimbursement of expenses due to a defect
Section 536bLessee knows of the defect at conclusion of the contract or upon acceptance
Section 536cDefects occurring during the lease period; notice of defect by the lessee
Section 536dContractual exclusion of rights of lessee with regard to defects
Section 537Payment of rent when the lessee is unable to be present in person
Section 538Wear and tear on the leased property from contractually agreed use
Section 539Reimbursement of other expenses and right of removal of the lessee
Section 540Making available the leased property for use use by third parties
Section 541Application for prohibitory injunction in the case of use in breach of contract
Section 542End of the lease
Section 543Termination for cause without notice for a compelling reason
Section 544Lease for more than 30 years
Section 545Tacit extension of the lease
Section 546Duty of lessee to return
Section 546aCompensation of the lessor in the case of late return
Section 547Reimbursement of rent paid in advance
Section 548Limitation of compensation claims and of the right of removal
Section 548aLease of digital products
Subtitle 2
Leases for residential space
Chapter 1
General provisions
Section 549Provisions applicable to leases of residential space
Section 550Form of the lease agreement
Section 551Restriction and investment of rent security deposits
Section 552Warding off the right of removal of the lessee
Section 553Making residential space available for use by third parties
Section 554Improved accessibility, e-mobility and burglary protection
Section 555Ineffectiveness of a penalty for breach of contract
Chapter 1a
Structural maintenance and modernisation measures
Section 555aStructural maintenance measures
Section 555bModernisation measures
Section 555cAnnouncement of modernisation measures
Section 555dToleration of modernisation measures, time limit
Section 555eSpecial right of termination of the lessee in case of modernisation measures
Section 555fAgreements on structural maintenance or modernisation measures
Chapter 2
Subchapter 1
Agreements on rent
Section 556Agreements on operating costs
Section 556aAccounting criterion for operating costs
Section 556bDue date of rent, right to set-off and right of retention
Section 556cCosts of heat supply as operating costs, authorisation to issue statutory instruments
Subchapter 1a
Agreements on the rent amount at commencement of the lease in areas in which the housing market is under pressure
Section 556dPermissible rent amount at commencement of the lease; authorisation to issue statutory instruments
Section 556eConsideration of the rent paid previously, or of modernisation work done
Section 556fExceptions
Section 556gLegal consequences; information on the rent
Subchapter 2
Provisions on the rent amount
Section 557Increases in rent by agreement or law
Section 557aStepped rent
Section 557bIndexed rent
Section 558Increase in rent up to the reference rent customary in the locality
Section 558aForm and justification of the rent increase
Section 558bApproval of a rent increase
Section 558cList of representative rents
Section 558dExpert list of representative rents
Section 558eRent database
Section 559Rent increase after modernisation measures
Section 559aCrediting of third-party funds
Section 559bAssertion of an increase; effect of declaration of increase
Section 559cSimplified procedure
Section 559dBreaches of duty in announcing or implementing structural changes
Section 560Changes in operating costs
Section 561Special right of termination of the lessee following a rent increase
Chapter 3
Security right of the lessor
Section 562Extent of the security right of the lessor
Section 562aExtinction of the security right of the lessor
Section 562bSelf-help; claim to surrender
Section 562cWarding off the security right by provision of security
Section 562dAttachment by a third party
Chapter 4
Change of contractual parties
Section 563Right of accession upon death of the lessee
Section 563aContinuation with surviving lessees
Section 563bLiability in the case of accession or continuation
Section 564Continuation of the lease with the heir; termination for cause
Section 565Commercial subletting
Section 566Purchase is subject to existing leases
Section 566aRent security deposit
Section 566bAdvance disposition over the rent
Section 566cAgreement between lessee and lessor on the rent
Section 566dSet-off by the lessee
Section 566eNotification by the lessor of the devolution of ownership
Section 567Encumbrance of the residential space by the lessor
Section 567aAlienation or encumbrance prior to residential space being made available for use
Section 567bOnward alienation or encumbrance by the acquirer
Chapter 5
Termination of the lease
Subchapter 1
General provisions
Section 568Form and contents of the notice of termination
Section 569Termination for cause without notice for a compelling reason
Section 570Exclusion of the right of retention
Section 571Further compensation of damages for late return of residential space
Section 572Agreement on right of rescission; lease subject to condition subsequent
Subchapter 2
Leases for an indefinite period of time
Section 573Notice of termination by the lessor in accordance with usual procedure
Section 573aEased termination by the lessor
Section 573bPartial termination by the lessor
Section 573cPeriods of time to be observed in giving notice of termination in accordance with usual procedure
Section 573dTermination for cause observing the statutory notice period
Section 574Objection of lessee to termination
Section 574aContinuation of lease after objection
Section 574bRequirements as to form and period of time for objection
Section 574cFurther continuation of the lease in the case of unforeseen circumstances
Subchapter 3
Leases for a specified period of time
Section 575Fixed-term lease
Section 575aTermination for cause observing the statutory notice period
Subchapter 4
Tied dwellings
Section 576Periods of time to be observed in giving notice of termination in accordance with usual procedure in the case of tied leased dwellings
Section 576aSpecial features of the right to raise an objection in the case of tied leased dwellings
Section 576bApplication of landlord and tenant law accordingly in connection with tied dwellings
Chapter 6
Special features when creating title to leased residences
Section 577Lessee’s right of preemption
Section 577aRestriction of termination in connection with conversion of the dwelling
Subtitle 3
Leases of other things and digital products
Section 578Leases of plots of land and premises
Section 578aLease of registered ships
Section 578bContracts on the lease of digital products
Section 579Due date of the rent
Section 580Notice of termination for cause in the case of the death of the lessee
Section 580aNotice periods
Subtitle 4
Usufructuary lease
Section 581Contractual duties typical for a usufructuary lease
Section 582Maintenance of inventory
Section 582aAssumption of inventory at its estimated value
Section 583Security right of usufructuary lessee over inventory
Section 583aRestrictions on disposition over inventory
Section 584Period of notice
Section 584aExclusion of certain rights of termination under landlord and tenant law
Section 584bLate return
Subtitle 5
Farm lease
Section 585Concept of farm lease
Section 585aForm of a farm lease
Section 585bDescription of the leased property
Section 586Contractual duties typical for a farm lease
Section 586aEncumbrances on the leased property
Section 587Due date of rent; payment of rent where the usufructuary lessee is personally prevented
Section 588Measures of maintenance or improvement
Section 589Making available the leased property to third parties for their use
Section 590Change of agricultural purpose or of previous use
Section 590aUse in breach of contract
Section 590bNecessary outlays
Section 591Outlays that increase value
Section 591aRemoval of installations
Section 591bLimitation of compensation claims
Section 592Security right of the usufructuary lessor
Section 593Amendment of farm leases
Section 593aTransfer of a business
Section 593bAlienation or encumbrance of the leased property
Section 594Termination and extension of the lease
Section 594aNotice periods
Section 594bLease for more than 30 years
Section 594cTermination in the case of occupational disability of the usufructuary lessee
Section 594dDeath of the usufructuary lessee
Section 594eTermination for cause without notice for a compelling reason
Section 594fWritten form of termination
Section 595Continuation of the lease
Section 595aEarly notice of termination of farm leases
Section 596Return of the leased property
Section 596aDuty to compensate for early termination of lease
Section 596bDuty to leave behind
Section 597Late return
Title 6
Gratuitous loan
Section 598Contractual duties typical for the case of a gratuitous loan
Section 599Liability of the lender
Section 600Liability for defects
Section 601Reimbursement of outlays
Section 602Wear and tear on the thing
Section 603Contractually agreed use
Section 604Duty to return
Section 605Right of termination
Section 606Short limitation period
Title 7
Contract for the loan of a thing
Section 607Contractual duties typical for a contract for the loan of a thing
Section 608Termination
Section 609Payment
Section 610(repealed)
Title 8
Service contract and similar contracts
Subtitle 1
Service contract
Section 611Contractual duties typical for a service contract
Section 611aEmployment contract
Section 611b(repealed)
Section 612Remuneration
Section 612aProhibition of victimisation
Section 613Non-transferability
Section 613aRights and duties in the case of transfer of business
Section 614Due date of remuneration
Section 615Remuneration in the case of default in acceptance and business risk
Section 616Temporary prevention from performing services
Section 617Duty of medical care
Section 618Duty to take protective measures
Section 619Absolute nature of welfare duties
Section 619aBurden of proof when the employee is liable
Section 620End of services relationship
Section 621Periods of notice for service relationships
Section 622Notice periods in the case of employment relationships
Section 623Written form of termination
Section 624Notice period in the case of contracts lasting longer than five years
Section 625Tacit extension
Section 626Termination without notice for a compelling reason
Section 627Termination without notice in the case of a position of trust
Section 628Partial remuneration and damages in case of termination without notice
Section 629Time off for search for employment
Section 630Duty to provide a reference
Subtitle 2
Treatment contract
Section 630aContractual duties typical for a treatment contract
Section 630bApplicable provisions
Section 630cCooperation between the contracting parties; obligations to provide information
Section 630dConsent
Section 630eObligations to provide information
Section 630fDocumentation of the treatment
Section 630gInspection of the medical records
Section 630hBurden of proof in case of liability for malpractice and errors in providing information
Title 9
Contract to produce a work and similar contracts
Subtitle 1
Contract to produce a work
Chapter 1
General provisions
Section 631Contractual duties typical for a contract to produce a work
Section 632Remuneration
Section 632aPart payments
Section 633Material defects and defects of title
Section 634Rights of the customer in the case of defects
Section 634aLimitation of claims for defects
Section 635Cure
Section 636Special provisions on rescission and damages
Section 637Self-help
Section 638Abatement of price
Section 639Exclusion of liability
Section 640Acceptance
Section 641Due date of remuneration
Section 641a(repealed)
Section 642Cooperation by the customer
Section 643Termination for failure to collaborate
Section 644Allocation of risk
Section 645Responsibility of the customer
Section 646Completion in lieu of acceptance
Section 647Security right of the contractor
Section 647aMortgage of the owner of a shipyard
Section 648Right of termination of the customer
Section 648aTermination for a compelling reason
Section 649Cost estimate
Section 650Contract for work and materials; consumer contract on the production of digital products
Chapter 2
Construction contract
Section 650aConstruction contract
Section 650bAmendment of the contract; right of the customer to issue orders
Section 650cAdjustment of remuneration in case of orders pursuant to section 650b (2)
Section 650dInjunction
Section 650eMortgage of a building contractor
Section 650fBuilder’s security
Section 650gDetermination of the status in the case of acceptance being refused; final invoice
Section 650hWritten form of the termination
Chapter 3
Construction contract with a consumer
Section 650iConstruction contract with a consumer
Section 650jSpecifications
Section 650kSubject matter of the contract
Section 650lRight of withdrawal
Section 650mPart payments; security for the claim to remuneration
Section 650nPreparation of documents and surrender
Chapter 4
Mandatory nature
Section 650oDeviating agreements
Subtitle 2
Contract for architectural services and contract for engineering services
Section 650pContractual duties typical for contracts for architectural and for engineering services
Section 650qApplicable provisions
Section 650rSpecial right of termination
Section 650sPartial acceptance
Section 650tJoint and several liability with the contractor executing the construction work
Subtitle 3
Developer contract
Section 650uDeveloper contract; applicable provisions
Section 650vPart payments
Subtitle 4
Package travel contract, brokerage of travel contracts and brokerage of linked travel arrangements
Section 651aContractual duties typical for a package travel contract
Section 651bDelimitation from brokerage
Section 651cLinked online booking processes
Section 651dObligations to provide information; contents of the contract
Section 651eTransfer of contract
Section 651fReservations of the right to modify; price reduction
Section 651gSignificant amendments of the contract
Section 651hRescission before the start of the package
Section 651iRights of the traveller in the case of a lack of conformity of the package
Section 651jLimitation
Section 651kRemedy
Section 651lTermination
Section 651mAbatement of the price
Section 651nDamages
Section 651oNotification by the traveller of a lack of conformity
Section 651pAdmissible limitation of liability; set-off
Section 651qOrganiser’s obligation to provide assistance
Section 651rInsolvency protection; security certificate
Section 651sInsolvency protection of the organisers established in the European Economic Area
Section 651tRepatriation, prepayments
Section 651uExchange student stays
Section 651vFacilitation of travel
Section 651wFacilitation of linked travel arrangements
Section 651xLiability for booking errors
Section 651yDeviating agreements
Title 10
Brokerage contract
Subtitle 1
General provisions
Section 652Accrual of fee claim
Section 653Brokerage fee
Section 654Forfeiture of the fee claim
Section 655Reduction of the brokerage fee
Subtitle 2
Intermediation of consumer credit agreements and non-gratuitous financial accommodation
Section 655aCredit intermediation contract
Section 655bWritten form in the case of a contract with a consumer
Section 655cRemuneration
Section 655dAncillary payment
Section 655eDeviating agreements, application to founders of new businesses
Subtitle 3
Marriage broking
Section 656Marriage broking
Subtitle 4
Brokerage of purchase contracts for flats and single family houses
Section 656aText form
Section 656bPersonal scope of sections 656c and 656d
Section 656cFee claim in the case of the broker working for both parties
Section 656dAgreements on the broker’s costs
Title 11
Promise of a reward
Section 657Binding promise
Section 658Revocation
Section 659Act undertaken more than once
Section 660Collaboration by more than one person
Section 661Prize competition
Section 661aPromises of prizes
Title 12
Mandate, contract for the management of the affairs of another and payment services
Subtitle 1
Section 662Contractual duties typical for a mandate
Section 663Duty to notify in the case of rejection
Section 664Non-transferability; liability for assistants
Section 665Deviation from instructions
Section 666Duty of information and duty to render accounts
Section 667Duty to surrender
Section 668Interest on money used
Section 669Duty of advance payment
Section 670Reimbursement of expenses
Section 671Withdrawal; termination
Section 672Death or incapacity to contract of the mandator
Section 673Death of the mandatary
Section 674Legal construct of continuation
Subtitle 2
Contract for the management of the affairs of another
Section 675Non-gratuitous management of the affairs of another
Section 675aDuties to provide information
Section 675bOrders to transfer securities in systems
Subtitle 3
Payment services
Chapter 1
General provisions
Section 675cPayment services and e-money
Section 675dInformation on payment services
Section 675eDeviating agreements
Chapter 2
Payment services contract
Section 675fPayment services contract
Section 675gAmendment of the framework contract on payment services
Section 675hNotice of termination in accordance with usual procedure of a framework contract on payment services
Section 675iExceptions for low-value payment instruments and e-money
Chapter 3
Provision and use of payment services
Subchapter 1
Authorisation of payment transactions; payment instruments; refusal of access to the payment account
Section 675jConsent and withdrawal of consent
Section 675kRestrictions on the use of a payment instrument; refusal of access to the payment account
Section 675lObligations of the payment service user with regard to payment instruments
Section 675mObligations of the payment service provider with regard to payment instruments; risk of dispatch
Subchapter 2
Execution of payment transactions
Section 675nReceipt of payment orders
Section 675oRefusal of payment orders
Section 675pIrrevocability of a payment order
Section 675qCharges for payment transactions
Section 675rExecution of a payment transaction using unique identifiers
Section 675sExecution deadline for payment transactions
Section 675tValue date and availability of funds; blocking available funds
Subchapter 3
Section 675uLiability of the payment service provider for unauthorised payment transactions
Section 675vLiability of the payer in case of misappropriation of a payment instrument
Section 675wProof of authentication
Section 675xRefund claim in case of an authorised payment transaction initiated by or through the payee
Section 675yLiability of the payment service provider in case of non-execution, defective or late execution of a payment order; obligation to make enquiries
Section 675zOther claims in case of non-execution, defective or late execution of a payment order or in case of an unauthorised payment transaction
Section 676Proof of execution of payment transactions
Section 676aEqualisation claim
Section 676bNotification of unauthorised or incorrectly executed payment transactions
Section 676cDisclaimer
Title 13
Voluntary agency without specific authorisation
Section 677Duties of the voluntary agent
Section 678Agency contrary to the will of the principal
Section 679Irrelevance of the contrary will of the principal
Section 680Agency of necessity
Section 681Ancillary duties of the voluntary agent
Section 682Lack of capacity to contract on the part of the voluntary agent
Section 683Reimbursement of expenses
Section 684Surrender of enrichment
Section 685Intention to donate
Section 686Error as to the identity of the principal
Section 687False voluntary agency without specific authorisation
Title 14
Section 688Contractual duties typical for safekeeping
Section 689Remuneration
Section 690Liability for gratuitous safekeeping
Section 691Deposit with third parties
Section 692Change of safekeeping
Section 693Reimbursement of expenses
Section 694Liability in damages of the depositor
Section 695Right of the depositor to demand return
Section 696Claim of depositary for repossession of the thing deposited
Section 697Place for return
Section 698Interest on money used
Section 699Due date of remuneration
Section 700Irregular safekeeping contract
Title 15
Bringing things onto the premises of innkeepers
Section 701Liability of the innkeeper
Section 702Limitation of liability; valuables
Section 702aRelease from liability
Section 703Extinction of the claim for damages
Section 704Security right of the innkeeper
Title 16
Section 705Contents of partnership agreement
Section 706Contributions of the partners
Section 707Increase of the agreed contribution
Section 707a to 707c(will enter into force at a future time)
Section 707dAuthorisation to issue statutory instruments
Section 708Liability of the partners
Section 709Joint management
Section 710Transfer of management
Section 711Right to object
Section 712Revocation and dismissal of management
Section 713Rights and duties of managing partners
Section 714Power of agency
Section 715Revocation of the power of agency
Section 716Right of control of the partners
Section 717Non-transferability of partner rights
Section 718Partnership assets
Section 719Joint assets
Section 720Protection of good-faith debtor
Section 721Distribution of profits and losses
Section 722Shares in profits and losses
Section 723Termination by partner
Section 724Notice of termination in the case of a partnership for life or a continuing partnership
Section 725Termination by attachment creditors
Section 726Dissolution due to achievement or impossibility of its object
Section 727Dissolution due to the death of a partner
Section 728Dissolution due to insolvency of the partnership or one of its partners
Section 729Continuation of authority to manage
Section 730Winding-up of the partnership; management
Section 731Procedure for winding-up of the partnership
Section 732Return of objects
Section 733Discharge of partnership debts; reimbursement of capital contributions
Section 734Distribution of the surplus
Section 735Duty to make subsequent contributions in case of loss
Section 736Retirement of a partner; continuing liability
Section 737Exclusion of a partner
Section 738Winding-up of the partnership on retirement
Section 739Liability for deficit
Section 740Sharing in the financial results of pending transactions
Title 17
Section 741Co-ownership by defined shares
Section 742Equal shares
Section 743Share in the fruits; authority to use
Section 744Joint administration
Section 745Administration and use by resolution
Section 746Effect in relation to successors in interest
Section 747Disposition over a share and joint objects
Section 748Bearing of charges and costs
Section 749Claim to dissolution
Section 750Exclusion of dissolution in case of death
Section 751Exclusion of dissolution and successors in interest
Section 752Division in kind
Section 753Division by sale
Section 754Sale of joint claims
Section 755Discharge of a joint debt
Section 756Discharge of the debt of a part owner
Section 757Warranty upon allocation to a part owner
Section 758Claim to dissolution not subject to the statute of limitations
Title 18
Life annuity
Section 759Duration and amount of the annuity
Section 760Advance payment
Section 761Form of life annuity commitment
Title 19
Imperfect obligations
Section 762Gaming, betting
Section 763Lottery contracts and gaming contracts
Section 764(repealed)
Title 20
Section 765Contractual duties typical for suretyship
Section 766Written form of the declaration of suretyship
Section 767Extent of the suretyship debt
Section 768Defences of a surety
Section 769Co-suretyship
Section 770Defences of voidability and set-off
Section 771Defence of failure to pursue remedies
Section 772Duty of creditor of enforcement and realisation
Section 773Exclusion of defence of failure to pursue remedies
Section 774Statutory devolution of claims
Section 775Claim to release of the surety
Section 776Waiver of a security
Section 777Temporary suretyship
Section 778Credit mandate
Title 21
Section 779Concept of settlement; mistake as to the basis of the settlement
Title 22
Promise to fulfil an obligation; acknowledgement of debt
Section 780Promise to fulfil an obligation
Section 781Acknowledgement of a debt
Section 782No requirements as to form for settlement
Title 23
Section 783Rights derived from instruction
Section 784Acceptance of the instruction
Section 785Handover of the instruction
Section 786(repealed)
Section 787Instruction to assume debt
Section 788Underlying debt relationship
Section 789Duty of recipient of the document setting out the instruction to notify
Section 790Revocation of the instruction
Section 791Death or incapacity to contract of a party involved
Section 792Transfer of the instruction
Title 24
Bearer bond
Section 793Rights under a bearer bond
Section 794Liability of the issuer
Section 795(repealed)
Section 796Objections of the issuer
Section 797Duty to render performance only in return for handover
Section 798Replacement instrument
Section 799Declaration of invalidity
Section 800Effect of the declaration of invalidity
Section 801Extinction; prescription
Section 802Blockage of payment
Section 803Interest coupons
Section 804Loss of interest coupons or similar coupons
Section 805New interest coupons and annuity coupons
Section 806Reregistration under name
Section 807Bearer tickets and stamps
Section 808Registered securities with bearer clause
Title 25
Presentation of things
Section 809Inspection of a thing
Section 810Right to inspect instruments
Section 811Place of presentation, risk and costs
Title 26
Unjust enrichment
Section 812Claim to surrender
Section 813Performance notwithstanding defence
Section 814Knowledge that debt is not owed
Section 815Non-occurrence of result
Section 816Disposition by an unauthorised person
Section 817Breach of law or act offending common decency
Section 818Scope of the claim to enrichment
Section 819Increased liability in case of knowledge and in cases of breaches of law or acts offending common decency
Section 820Increased liability where the result is uncertain
Section 821Enrichment defence
Section 822Duty to surrender of third parties
Title 27
Section 823Liability in damages
Section 824Endangering credit
Section 825Inducing others to sexual acts
Section 826Intentional damage inflicted in a manner offending common decency
Section 827Exclusion and reduction of responsibility
Section 828Minors
Section 829Liability in damages for reasons of equity
Section 830Joint tortfeasors and persons involved
Section 831Liability for vicarious agents
Section 832Liability of a person with a duty of supervision
Section 833Liability of animal keeper
Section 834Liability of animal minder
Section 835(repealed)
Section 836Liability of the owner of a plot of land
Section 837Liability of building possessor
Section 838Liability of the person with a duty of upkeep regarding a building
Section 839Liability in case of breach of official duty
Section 839aLiability of court-appointed expert
Section 840Liability of more than one person
Section 841Compensation for liability of a public official
Section 842Extent of liability in damages in case of injury of a person
Section 843Annuity in money or lump sum settlement
Section 844Third-party compensation claims in the case of death
Section 845Compensation claims for lost services
Section 846Contributory negligence of the injured person
Section 847(repealed)
Section 848Liability for chance in the case of deprivation of a thing
Section 849Interest on the compensation sum
Section 850Reimbursement of outlays
Section 851Compensation payment to unauthorised parties
Section 852Claim to surrender after end of limitation period
Section 853Defence of bad faith
Book 3
Law of property
Division 1
Section 854Acquisition of possession
Section 855Agent in possession
Section 856Ending of possession
Section 857Inheritability
Section 858Prohibited interference with possession
Section 859Self-help by the possessor
Section 860Self-help by the agent in possession
Section 861Claim on account of deprivation of possession
Section 862Claim on account of interference with possession
Section 863Objections of the party depriving of possession or of the disturber
Section 864Extinction of claims to possession
Section 865Part possession
Section 866Co-possession
Section 867Possessor’s right of pursuit
Section 868Indirect possession
Section 869Claims of the indirect possessor
Section 870Transfer of indirect possession
Section 871Multilevel indirect possession
Section 872Proprietary possession
Division 2
General provisions on rights in land
Section 873Acquisition by agreement and registration
Section 874Reference to approval of registration
Section 875Cancellation of a right
Section 876Cancellation of an encumbered right
Section 877Alterations of rights
Section 878Subsequent restrictions on disposition
Section 879Order of priority of more than one right
Section 880Change of priority
Section 881Reservation of priority
Section 882Maximum amount of compensation for lost value
Section 883Prerequisites and effect of priority notice
Section 884Effect in relation to heirs
Section 885Prerequisite for the entry of the priority notice
Section 886Claim for removal
Section 887Judicial call of the priority notice claimant
Section 888Claim to approval of the person entitled to the priority notice
Section 889Exclusion of merger for rights in rem
Section 890Union of plots of land; addition
Section 891Statutory presumption
Section 892Presumption of legal force of the contents of the Land Register
Section 893Legal transaction with the person entered in the Land Register
Section 894Correction of the Land Register
Section 895Prior entry of the person obliged
Section 896Submission of certificate
Section 897Costs of correction
Section 898Claims to correction not subject to the statute of limitations
Section 899Entry of an objection
Section 899aProvisos for civil-law partnerships
Section 900Acquisition by prescription following entry in the Land Register
Section 901Extinction of rights not entered in the Land Register
Section 902Rights entered in the Land Register not subject to the statute of limitations
Division 3
Title 1
Subject matter of ownership
Section 903Powers of the owner
Section 904Necessity
Section 905Restriction of ownership
Section 906Introduction of imponderable substances
Section 907Facilities threatening danger
Section 908Imminent collapse of building
Section 909Excavation
Section 910Overhang
Section 911Falling fruit
Section 912Encroachment; duty to tolerate
Section 913Payment of periodical payments for encroachment
Section 914Priority, registration and extinction of periodical payments
Section 915Purchase
Section 916Adverse effect on heritable building right or servitude
Section 917Right of way of necessity
Section 918Exclusion of the right of way of necessity
Section 919Boundary marking
Section 920Confusion of boundaries
Section 921Joint use of boundary installations
Section 922Manner of use and maintenance
Section 923Boundary tree
Section 924Neighbour-law claims not subject to the statute of limitations
Title 2
Acquisition and loss of ownership of plots of land
Section 925Declaration of conveyance
Section 925aDocument of land transaction
Section 926Accessories of the plot of land
Section 927Judicial call procedure
Section 928Relinquishment of ownership, appropriation by fiscal authority
Title 3
Acquisition and loss of ownership of movable things
Subtitle 1
Section 929Agreement and delivery
Section 929aAgreement with regard to unregistered ship
Section 930Constructive delivery
Section 931Assignment of claim to surrender
Section 932Good faith acquisition from a person not entitled
Section 932aGood faith acquisition of unregistered ships
Section 933Good faith acquisition on constructive delivery
Section 934Good faith acquisition on assignment of claim to surrender
Section 935No good faith acquisition of lost things
Section 936Extinction of third party rights
Subtitle 2
Acquisition by prescription
Section 937Prerequisites, exclusion in the case of knowledge
Section 938Presumption of proprietary possession
Section 939Suspension of prescription
Section 940Interruption by loss of possession
Section 941Interruption by act of execution
Section 942Effect of interruption
Section 943Acquisition by prescription and succession in title
Section 944Possessor of an inheritance
Section 945Extinction of third party rights
Subtitle 3
Combination, intermixture, processing
Section 946Combination with a plot of land
Section 947Combination with movable things
Section 948Intermixture
Section 949Extinction of third party rights
Section 950Processing
Section 951Compensation for loss of rights
Section 952Ownership of documents of debt
Subtitle 4
Acquisition of products and other components of a thing
Section 953Ownership of separated products and components
Section 954Acquisition by person entitled in rem
Section 955Acquisition by proprietary possessor in good faith
Section 956Acquisition by person entitled in personam
Section 957Permission by the person not entitled
Subtitle 5
Section 958Acquisition of ownership of ownerless movable things
Section 959Abandonment of ownership
Section 960Wild animals
Section 961Loss of ownership of bee swarms
Section 962Right of pursuit of the owner
Section 963Merging of bee swarms
Section 964Intermixture of bee swarms
Subtitle 6
Section 965Duty of the finder to notify
Section 966Duty of safekeeping
Section 967Duty to deliver
Section 968Extent of liability
Section 969Surrender to the loser
Section 970Reimbursement of expenses
Section 971Finder’s reward
Section 972Right of retention of the finder
Section 973Acquisition of ownership by the finder
Section 974Acquisition of ownership after concealment
Section 975Rights of the finder after delivery
Section 976Acquisition of ownership by the municipality
Section 977Claim in enrichment
Section 978Finding in public authority or transport agency
Section 979Sale; authorisation to issue an ordinance
Section 980Notice by publication of the finding
Section 981Receipt of the proceeds of auction
Section 982Provisions for implementation
Section 983Undeliverable things in the possession of authorities
Section 984Treasure trove
Title 4
Claims arising from ownership
Section 985Claim to surrender
Section 986Objections of the possessor
Section 987Emoluments after litigation is pending
Section 988Emoluments of the possessor who makes no payment
Section 989Damages after litigation is pending
Section 990Liability of possessor with knowledge
Section 991Liability of intermediary possessor in the case of indirect possession
Section 992Liability of the wrongful possessor
Section 993Liability of the possessor in good faith
Section 994Necessary outlays
Section 995Charges
Section 996Useful outlays
Section 997Right of removal
Section 998Farming costs for agricultural plot of land
Section 999Reimbursement of outlays of the predecessor in title
Section 1000Right of retention of the possessor
Section 1001Action for reimbursement of outlays
Section 1002Extinction of the claim for outlays
Section 1003Right to satisfaction of the possessor
Section 1004Claim for removal and injunction
Section 1005Right of pursuit
Section 1006Presumption of ownership for possessor
Section 1007Claims of the former possessor, exclusion in the case of knowledge
Title 5
Section 1008Co-ownership by fractional shares
Section 1009Encumbrance to the benefit of a co-owner
Section 1010Successor in interest of a co-owner
Section 1011Claims arising from co-ownership
Sections 1012 - 1017(repealed)
Division 4
Title 1
Section 1018Statutory definition of easement
Section 1019Benefit of the dominant plot of land
Section 1020Considerate use
Section 1021Agreed duty of maintenance
Section 1022Installations on building structures
Section 1023Moving the use
Section 1024Coincidence of more than one right of use
Section 1025Division of the dominant plot of land
Section 1026Division of the servient plot of land
Section 1027Interference with easement
Section 1028Limitation
Section 1029Protection of possession of the lawful possessor
Title 2
Subtitle 1
Usufruct in things
Section 1030Statutory definition of usufruct in things
Section 1031Application to accessories
Section 1032Creation of usufruct in movable things
Section 1033Acquisition by prescription
Section 1034Determination of the condition
Section 1035Usufruct in aggregate of things; list
Section 1036Right of possession; exercise of usufruct
Section 1037Transformation
Section 1038Economic plan for forests and mines
Section 1039Excessive taking of fruits
Section 1040Treasure
Section 1041Upkeep of the thing
Section 1042Duty of notification by the usufructuary
Section 1043Repair or replacement
Section 1044Toleration of repairs
Section 1045Obligation of the usufructuary to insure
Section 1046Usufruct in an insurance claim
Section 1047Bearing of charges
Section 1048Usufruct in plot of land with inventory
Section 1049Reimbursement of outlays
Section 1050Wear and tear
Section 1051Provision of security
Section 1052Judicial administration in the absence of security
Section 1053Application for a prohibitory injunction in the case of unauthorised use
Section 1054Judicial administration on the basis of breach of duty
Section 1055Duty of return of the usufructuary
Section 1056Leases and usufructuary leases at the end of the usufruct
Section 1057Limitation of compensation claims
Section 1058Grantor as owner
Section 1059Non-transferability; ceding the exercise
Section 1059aTransferability in the case of a legal person or of a partnership having legal personality
Section 1059bNon-distrainability
Section 1059cDevolution or transfer of usufruct
Section 1059dLeases and usufructuary leases on the transfer of the usufruct
Section 1059eClaim to grant of the usufruct
Section 1060Coincidence of more than one right of use
Section 1061Death of the usufructuary
Section 1062Extension of cancellation to accessories
Section 1063Coincidence with ownership
Section 1064Cancellation of usufruct in movable things
Section 1065Adverse effect on right of usufruct
Section 1066Usufruct in the share of a co-owner
Section 1067Usufruct in consumable things
Subtitle 2
Usufruct in rights
Section 1068Statutory definition of usufruct in rights
Section 1069Creation
Section 1070Usufruct in a right to performance
Section 1071Cancellation or alteration of the encumbered right
Section 1072Termination of usufruct
Section 1073Usufruct in a life annuity
Section 1074Usufruct in a claim; notice and collection
Section 1075Effect of performance
Section 1076Usufruct in claim bearing interest
Section 1077Notice of termination and payment
Section 1078Cooperation in collection
Section 1079Investment of the capital
Section 1080Usufruct in a land charge or annuity land charge
Section 1081Usufruct in bearer instruments or instruments made out to order
Section 1082Deposit
Section 1083Cooperation in collection
Section 1084Consumable things
Subtitle 3
Usufruct in assets
Section 1085Creation of usufruct in assets
Section 1086Rights of the creditors of the grantor
Section 1087Relationship between usufructuary and grantor
Section 1088Liability of the usufructuary
Section 1089Usufruct in an inheritance
Title 3
Restricted personal easements
Section 1090Statutory definition of the restricted personal easement
Section 1091Scope
Section 1092Non-transferability; ceding the exercise
Section 1093Right of residence
Division 5
Right of preemption
Section 1094Statutory contents of the in-rem right of preemption
Section 1095Encumbrance of a fraction
Section 1096Application to accessories
Section 1097Creation for one or more cases of sale
Section 1098Effect of a right of preemption
Section 1099Notifications
Section 1100Rights of the purchaser
Section 1101Release of the person entitled
Section 1102Release of the purchaser
Section 1103Subjective in-rem right of preemption and personal right of preemption
Section 1104Exclusion of unknown entitled persons
Division 6
Charges on land
Section 1105Statutory contents of the charge on land
Section 1106Encumbrance of a fraction
Section 1107Individual payments
Section 1108Personal liability of the owner
Section 1109Division of the dominant plot of land
Section 1110Subjective in-rem charge on land
Section 1111Personal charge on land
Section 1112Exclusion of unknown entitled persons
Division 7
Mortgage, land charge, annuity land charge
Title 1
Section 1113Statutory contents of the mortgage
Section 1114Encumbrance of a fraction
Section 1115Entry of the mortgage
Section 1116Certificated and uncertificated mortgage
Section 1117Acquisition of the certificated mortgage
Section 1118Liability for incidental claims
Section 1119Extension of liability for interest
Section 1120Extension to products, parts and accessories
Section 1121Release from liability through alienation and removal
Section 1122Release from liability without alienation
Section 1123Extension to claim for rent or for usufructuary rent
Section 1124Advance disposition over the rent or usufructuary rent
Section 1125Set-off against rent or usufructuary rent
Section 1126Extension to recurring acts of performance
Section 1127Extension to insurance claim
Section 1128Insurance on buildings
Section 1129Other insurance against damage
Section 1130Replacement clause
Section 1131Addition of a plot of land
Section 1132Blanket mortgage
Section 1133Danger to the security of the mortgage
Section 1134Application for an injunction
Section 1135Deterioration of accessories
Section 1136Restraint on disposition by legal transaction
Section 1137Defences of the owner
Section 1138Presumption of legal force of the contents of the Land Register
Section 1139Objection with regard to an uncertificated mortgage for a loan
Section 1140Mortgage certificate and inaccuracy of the Land Register
Section 1141Notice of termination of the mortgage
Section 1142Owner’s right to provide satisfaction
Section 1143Devolution of claim
Section 1144Handover of documents
Section 1145Partial satisfaction
Section 1146Default interest
Section 1147Satisfaction by compulsory enforcement
Section 1148Fiction of ownership
Section 1149Prohibited agreements on satisfaction
Section 1150Right of redemption of third parties
Section 1151Change of priority for partial mortgages
Section 1152Partial mortgage certificate
Section 1153Transfer of mortgage and claim
Section 1154Assignment of the claim
Section 1155Presumption of legal force of certified declarations of assignment
Section 1156Legal relationship between the owner and the new creditor
Section 1157Continuation of defences against the mortgage
Section 1158Future collateral performance
Section 1159Arrears of collateral performance
Section 1160Enforcement of a certificated mortgage
Section 1161Enforcement of the claim
Section 1162Judicial call with regard to the mortgage certificate
Section 1163Owner mortgage
Section 1164Devolution of the mortgage to the debtor
Section 1165Discharge of the debtor
Section 1166Notification of the debtor
Section 1167Delivery of correction documents
Section 1168Waiver of the mortgage
Section 1169Defence with a negative effect on a right
Section 1170Exclusion of unknown creditors
Section 1171Exclusion by deposit
Section 1172Owner blanket mortgage
Section 1173Satisfaction by one of the owners
Section 1174Satisfaction by the personal debtor
Section 1175Waiver of the blanket mortgage
Section 1176Owner partial mortgage; conflict clause
Section 1177Owner land charge, owner mortgage
Section 1178Mortgage for collateral performance and costs
Section 1179Priority notice of right to deletion
Section 1179aClaim to deletion in the case of third party rights
Section 1179bClaim to deletion based on one’s own right
Section 1180Substitution for the claim
Section 1181Extinction by satisfaction from the plot of land
Section 1182Transfer in the case of satisfaction from the blanket mortgage
Section 1183Cancellation of the mortgage
Section 1184Debt-securing mortgage
Section 1185Uncertificated mortgage; inapplicable provisions
Section 1186Permitted conversions
Section 1187Debt-securing mortgage for bearer instruments and instruments made out to order
Section 1188Special provision for bearer bonds
Section 1189Appointment of a Land Register representative
Section 1190Maximum amount mortgage
Title 2
Land charge, annuity land charge
Subtitle 1
Land charge
Section 1191Statutory contents of the land charge
Section 1192Applicable provisions
Section 1193Termination
Section 1194Place of payment
Section 1195Bearer land charge
Section 1196Owner land charge
Section 1197Deviations from third party land charge
Section 1198Permitted conversions
Subtitle 2
Annuity land charge
Section 1199Statutory contents of the annuity land charge
Section 1200Applicable provisions
Section 1201Right of redemption
Section 1202Termination
Section 1203Permitted conversions
Division 8
Pledge of movable things and over rights
Title 1
Pledge of movable things
Section 1204Statutory contents of the pledge of movable things
Section 1205Creation
Section 1206Replacement of delivery by granting joint possession
Section 1207Pledging by an unauthorised person
Section 1208Acquisition of priority of rank in good faith
Section 1209Priority of the pledge
Section 1210Extent of liability of the pledge
Section 1211Defences of the pledgor
Section 1212Extension to separated products
Section 1213Pledge of emoluments
Section 1214Duties of the pledgee entitled to emoluments
Section 1215Duty of safekeeping
Section 1216Reimbursement of outlays
Section 1217Violation of rights by the pledgee
Section 1218Rights of the pledgor in the case of imminent spoilage
Section 1219Rights of the pledgee in the case of imminent spoilage
Section 1220Warning of auction
Section 1221Sale by private agreement
Section 1222Pledge of more than one thing
Section 1223Duty to return the pledged item; right to redeem the pledged item
Section 1224Satisfaction by deposit or set-off
Section 1225Devolution of claim to the pledgor
Section 1226Limitation of compensation claims
Section 1227Protection of the pledge
Section 1228Satisfaction by sale of the pledged item
Section 1229Prohibition of a forfeiture agreement
Section 1230Selection of pledged item from more than one pledged item
Section 1231Surrender of pledged item for sale
Section 1232Lower-ranking pledgees
Section 1233Execution of the sale
Section 1234Warning of sale; waiting period
Section 1235Public auction
Section 1236Place of auction
Section 1237Notice by publication
Section 1238Conditions of sale
Section 1239Bidding by creditor and owner
Section 1240Things made of gold or silver
Section 1241Notification of the owner
Section 1242Effects of the lawful alienation
Section 1243Unlawful alienation
Section 1244Acquisition in good faith
Section 1245Deviating agreements
Section 1246Deviation for reasons of equity
Section 1247Proceeds of the pledged item
Section 1248Presumption of ownership
Section 1249Right of redemption
Section 1250Transfer of claim
Section 1251Effect of the devolution of the pledge
Section 1252Extinction with the claim
Section 1253Extinction by return
Section 1254Claim for return
Section 1255Cancellation of the pledge
Section 1256Coincidence of pledge and ownership
Section 1257Pledge by operation of law
Section 1258Pledge of the share of a co-owner
Section 1259Realisation of a commercial pledged item
Sections 1260 - 1272(repealed)
Title 2
Pledge of rights
Section 1273Statutory contents of the pledge of rights
Section 1274Creation
Section 1275Pledge of right to performance
Section 1276Cancellation or alteration of the pledged right
Section 1277Satisfaction by compulsory enforcement
Section 1278Extinction by return
Section 1279Pledge of a claim
Section 1280Notification of the debtor
Section 1281Performance before the due date
Section 1282Performance after the due date
Section 1283Termination
Section 1284Deviating agreements
Section 1285Cooperation in collection
Section 1286Duty of termination in the case of danger
Section 1287Effect of performance
Section 1288Investment of collected money
Section 1289Extension to the interest
Section 1290Collection in the case of multiple pledges
Section 1291Pledge of land charge or annuity land charge
Section 1292Pledging of instruments made out to order
Section 1293Pledge of bearer instruments
Section 1294Collection and notice of termination
Section 1295Private sale of instruments made out to order
Section 1296Extension to interest coupons
Book 4
Family law
Division 1
Civil marriage
Title 1
Section 1297No petition for a marriage to be entered into, nullity of a promise to pay a penalty
Section 1298Duty of compensation in the case of withdrawal
Section 1299Withdrawal by reason of fault of the other party
Section 1300(repealed)
Section 1301Return of the presents
Section 1302Limitation
Title 2
Entering into marriage
Subtitle 1
Capacity to marry
Section 1303Marriageable age
Section 1304Incapacity to contract
Section 1305(repealed)
Subtitle 2
Impediments to marriage
Section 1306Existing marriage or life partnership
Section 1307Relationship by blood
Section 1308Adoption
Subtitle 3
Certificate of no impediment
Section 1309Certificate of no impediment for foreigners
Subtitle 4
Section 1310Competence of the registrar of births, deaths and marriages, curing defective marriages
Section 1311Personal declaration
Section 1312Marriage ceremony
Title 3
Annulment of marriage
Section 1313Annulment by judicial decision
Section 1314Grounds of annulment
Section 1315Exclusion of annulment
Section 1316Entitlement to petition
Section 1317Period for filing the petition
Section 1318Consequences of annulment
Title 4
Remarriage after declaration of death
Section 1319Annulment of the previous marriage
Section 1320Annulment of the new marriage
Sections 1321 - 1352(repealed)
Title 5
Effects of marriage in general
Section 1353Conjugal union
Section 1354(repealed)
Section 1355Family name
Section 1356Household management, gainful employment
Section 1357Transactions to provide the necessities of life
Section 1358(repealed)
Section 1359Scope of duty of care
Section 1360Duty of family maintenance
Section 1360aScope of the obligation to maintain
Section 1360bOverpayment
Section 1361Maintenance when spouses are living apart
Section 1361aAllocation of household effects when spouses are living apart
Section 1361bMatrimonial residence when spouses are living apart
Section 1362Presumption of ownership
Title 6
Matrimonial property regime
Subtitle 1
Statutory property regime
Section 1363Community of accrued gains
Section 1364Management of assets
Section 1365Disposition over assets as a whole
Section 1366Ratification of contracts
Section 1367Unilateral legal transactions
Section 1368Asserting the ineffectiveness
Section 1369Dispositions over household objects
Section 1370(repealed)
Section 1371Equalisation of accrued gains in the case of death
Section 1372Equalisation of accrued gains in other cases
Section 1373Accrued gains
Section 1374Initial assets
Section 1375Final assets
Section 1376Ascertainment of the value of the initial and final assets
Section 1377List of initial assets
Section 1378Equalisation claim
Section 1379Duty of information
Section 1380Set-off of advancements
Section 1381Refusal of satisfaction for gross inequity
Section 1382Deferment
Section 1383Transfer of assets
Section 1384Cut-off date for computing the accrued gains and the amount of the equalisation claim in the case of divorce
Section 1385Premature equalisation of accrued gains of the spouse entitled to an equalisation claim in case of premature cancellation of the community of accrued gains
Section 1386Premature suspension of the community of accrued gains
Section 1387Cut-off date for computing the accrued gains and amount of the equalisation claim in the case of premature equalisation or premature suspension
Section 1388Occurrence of separation of property
Section 1389(repealed)
Section 1390Claims against third parties of the person entitled to equalisation
Sections 1391 - 1407(repealed)
Subtitle 2
Contractual property regime
Chapter 1
General provisions
Section 1408Marriage contract, freedom of contract
Section 1409Restriction of freedom of contract
Section 1410Form
Section 1411Marriage contracts of persons placed under the care of a custodian
Section 1412Effect in relation to third parties
Section 1413Revocation of permission to manage assets
Chapter 2
Separation of property
Section 1414Commencement of separation of property
Chapter 3
Community of property
Subchapter 1
General provisions
Section 1415Agreement by marriage contract
Section 1416Common matrimonial property
Section 1417Separate property
Section 1418Reserved property
Section 1419Joint ownership
Section 1420Use for maintenance
Section 1421Management of the common matrimonial property
Subchapter 2
Management of the common matrimonial property by one spouse
Section 1422Subject matter of right of management
Section 1423Disposition over the common matrimonial property as a whole
Section 1424Disposition over plots of land, ships or ships under construction
Section 1425Donations
Section 1426Substitution of the approval of the other spouse
Section 1427Legal consequences of lack of consent
Section 1428Dispositions without approval
Section 1429Emergency right of management
Section 1430Substitution of the approval of the managing spouse
Section 1431Independent trade or business
Section 1432Acceptance of an inheritance; refusal of offer to enter into contract or of donation
Section 1433Continuation of a legal dispute
Section 1434Unjust enrichment of the common matrimonial property
Section 1435Duties of the managing spouse
Section 1436Managing spouse under custodianship
Section 1437Obligations of the common matrimonial property; personal liability
Section 1438Liability of the common matrimonial property
Section 1439No liability on acquisition of an inheritance
Section 1440Liability for reserved or separate property
Section 1441Liability as between the spouses
Section 1442Obligations of the separate property and of a trade or business
Section 1443Costs of litigation
Section 1444Costs of the advancement of a child
Section 1445Equalisation between reserved property, separate property and common matrimonial property
Section 1446Due date of the equalisation claim
Section 1447Petition of the non-managing spouse for termination
Section 1448Petition of the managing spouse for termination
Section 1449Effect of the judicial termination decision
Subchapter 3
Joint management of the common matrimonial property by the spouses
Section 1450Joint management by the spouses
Section 1451Duty of both spouses to cooperate
Section 1452Substitution of approval
Section 1453Disposition without consent
Section 1454Emergency right of management
Section 1455Acts of management without the cooperation of the other spouse
Section 1456Independent trade or business
Section 1457Unjust enrichment of the common matrimonial property
Section 1458(repealed)
Section 1459Obligations of the common matrimonial property; personal liability
Section 1460Liability of the common matrimonial property
Section 1461No liability on acquisition of an inheritance
Section 1462Liability for reserved or separate property
Section 1463Liability as between the spouses
Section 1464Obligations of the separate property and of a trade or business
Section 1465Costs of litigation
Section 1466Costs of the advancement of a child that is not a child of the spouses
Section 1467Equalisation between reserved property, separate property and common matrimonial property
Section 1468Due date of the equalisation claim
Section 1469Petition for termination
Section 1470Effect of the judicial termination decision
Subchapter 4
Partitioning of the common matrimonial property
Section 1471Beginning of the partitioning
Section 1472Joint management of the common matrimonial property
Section 1473Direct substitution
Section 1474Implementation of the partitioning
Section 1475Discharge of the obligations of the common matrimonial property
Section 1476Division of the surplus
Section 1477Implementation of the division
Section 1478Partitioning after divorce
Section 1479Partitioning after judicial termination decision
Section 1480Liability to third parties after the division
Section 1481Liability of the spouses to each other
Section 1482Dissolution of marriage by death
Subchapter 5
Continued community of property
Section 1483Occurrence of continued community of property
Section 1484Refusal of continued community of property
Section 1485Common matrimonial property
Section 1486Reserved property; separate property
Section 1487Legal position of the spouse and the descendants
Section 1488Obligations of the common matrimonial property
Section 1489Personal liability for the obligations of the common matrimonial property
Section 1490Death of a descendant
Section 1491Waiver by a descendant
Section 1492Termination by the surviving spouse
Section 1493Remarriage or establishment of a life partnership by the surviving spouse
Section 1494Death of the surviving spouse
Section 1495Petition of a descendant for termination
Section 1496Effect of the judicial termination decision
Section 1497Legal relationship until partitioning
Section 1498Implementation of the partitioning
Section 1499Obligations borne by the surviving spouse
Section 1500Obligations borne by the descendants
Section 1501Set-off of lump sum payments
Section 1502Right of surviving spouse to assume assets
Section 1503Division among the descendants
Section 1504Adjustment of liability between descendants
Section 1505Supplementation of the share of a descendant
Section 1506Unworthiness to receive a share
Section 1507Certificate on continuation of the community of property
Section 1508(repealed)
Section 1509Exclusion of the continued community of property by testamentary disposition
Section 1510Effect of exclusion
Section 1511Exclusion of a descendant
Section 1512Reduction of the share
Section 1513Deprivation of the share
Section 1514Disposition of the amount withheld
Section 1515Right of a descendant and of the spouse to assume assets
Section 1516Approval of the other spouse
Section 1517Waiver of their share by a descendant
Section 1518Mandatory law
Chapter 4
Optional Regime of the Community of Accrued Gains
Section 1519Agreement by marriage contract
Section 1520 to 1557(repealed)
Subtitle 3
Matrimonial property register
Section 1558Competent court of registration
Section 1559Change of habitual residence
Section 1560Application for entry
Section 1561Requirements for application
Section 1562Notice by publication
Section 1563Inspection of the register; application of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 in registry proceedings
Title 7
Subtitle 1
Grounds of divorce
Section 1564Divorce by judicial decision
Section 1565Breakdown of marriage
Section 1566Presumption of breakdown
Section 1567Living apart
Section 1568Hardship clause
Subtitle 1a
Treatment of the matrimonial residence and of the household objects on the occasion of divorce
Section 1568aMatrimonial residence
Section 1568bHousehold objects
Subtitle 2
Maintenance of the divorced spouse
Chapter 1
Section 1569Principle of personal responsibility
Chapter 2
Entitlement to maintenance
Section 1570Maintenance to care for a child
Section 1571Maintenance by reason of old age
Section 1572Maintenance for illness or infirmity
Section 1573Maintenance for unemployment and topping-up maintenance
Section 1574Appropriate gainful employment
Section 1575Training, further training or retraining
Section 1576Maintenance for reasons of equity
Section 1577Indigence
Section 1578Amount of maintenance
Section 1578aPresumption of cover in the case of additional expenditure resulting from injury
Section 1578bReduction and time limitation of maintenance on grounds of inequity
Section 1579Restriction or refusal of maintenance for gross inequity
Section 1580Duty of information
Chapter 3
Ability to pay and priority
Section 1581Ability to pay
Section 1582Priority of the divorced spouse where more than one person is entitled to maintenance
Section 1583Influence of the matrimonial property regime
Section 1584Priority of more than one person liable for maintenance
Chapter 4
Form of the maintenance claim
Section 1585Nature of maintenance payment
Section 1585aProvision of security
Section 1585bMaintenance for the past
Section 1585cAgreements on maintenance
Chapter 5
End of the maintenance claim
Section 1586Remarriage, establishment of a life partnership or death of the person entitled
Section 1586aRevival of the maintenance claim
Section 1586bObligation not extinguished on death of the person obliged
Subtitle 3
Equalisation of pension rights
Section 1587Reference to the Equalisation of Pension Rights Act (Versorgungsausgleichsgesetz)
Title 8
Church duties
Section 1588(no heading)
Division 2
Title 1
General provisions
Section 1589Relationship by blood
Section 1590Relationship by marriage
Title 2
Section 1591Maternity
Section 1592Paternity
Section 1593Paternity in the case of dissolution of the marriage by death
Section 1594Acknowledgement of paternity
Section 1595Need for approval of the acknowledgement
Section 1596Acknowledgement and approval in the case of lack of capacity to contract or limited capacity to contract
Section 1597Formal requirements; revocation
Section 1597aProhibition of wrongful acknowledgment of paternity
Section 1598Ineffectiveness of acknowledgement, approval and revocation
Section 1598aClaim to consent to a genetic examination to clarify natural parentage
Section 1599Non-existence of paternity
Section 1600Persons entitled to contest
Section 1600aPersonal contestation; contestation in the case of lack of capacity to contract or limited capacity to contract
Section 1600bContestation periods
Section 1600cPresumption of paternity in contestation proceedings
Section 1600dCourt determination of paternity
Title 3
Obligation to maintain
Subtitle 1
General provisions
Section 1601Persons with an obligation to maintain
Section 1602Indigence
Section 1603Ability to pay
Section 1604Influence of the matrimonial property regime
Section 1605Duty of information
Section 1606Order of priority of more than one person obliged
Section 1607Substituted liability and statutory devolution of claim
Section 1608Liability of the spouse or life partner
Section 1609Priority of more than person entitled to maintenance
Section 1610Amount of maintenance
Section 1610aPresumption of cover in the case of additional expenditure resulting from injury
Section 1611Restriction or end of obligation
Section 1612Nature of maintenance payment
Section 1612aMinimum maintenance of minor children; authorisation to issue statutory instruments
Section 1612bMeeting cash requirements through child benefit
Section 1612cSet-off of other child-related payments
Section 1613Maintenance for the past
Section 1614Waiver of maintenance claim; advance performance
Section 1615Extinction of the maintenance claim
Subtitle 2
Special provisions for the child and its parents who are not married to each other
Section 1615aApplicable provisions
Sections 1615b to 1615k(repealed)
Section 1615lMaintenance claim of mother and father by reason of the birth
Section 1615mFuneral costs for the mother
Section 1615nNo expiry on the death of the father or stillbirth
Title 4
Legal relationship between the parents and the child in general
Section 1616Birth name in the case of parents with family name
Section 1617Birth name in the case of parents without family name and with joint parental custody
Section 1617aBirth name in the case of parents without family name and with sole parental custody
Section 1617bName in the case of subsequent joint parental custody or ostensible paternity
Section 1617cName in the case of change of name by the parents
Section 1618Bringing a child under a family name
Section 1618aDuty of assistance and respect
Section 1619Services in house and business
Section 1620Outlays of the child for the household of its parents
Sections 1621 - 1623(repealed)
Section 1624Advancement from the parental assets
Section 1625Advancement from the assets of the child
Title 5
Parental custody
Section 1626Parental custody, principles
Section 1626aParental custody of parents who are not married to one another; declarations of parental custody
Section 1626bSpecial prerequisites for the effectiveness of the declaration of parental custody
Section 1626cDeclaring in person; parent with limited capacity to contract
Section 1626dForm; duty of notification
Section 1626eIneffectiveness
Section 1627Exercise of parental custody
Section 1628Court decision in the case of differences of opinion between the parents
Section 1629Representation of the child
Section 1629aRestriction of liability of minors
Section 1630Parental custody in the case of appointment of a curator or of foster care
Section 1631Contents and limits of care for the person of the child
Section 1631aTraining and profession
Section 1631bPlacement involving deprivation of liberty and measures involving deprivation of liberty
Section 1631cProhibition of sterilisation
Section 1631dCircumcision of the male child
Section 1631eTreatment of children with variants of sexual development
Section 1632Surrender of the child; determination of contact; order that child remains in foster care
Section 1633(repealed)
Sections 1634 - 1637(repealed)
Section 1638Restriction of care for the assets of the child
Section 1639Directions of the testator or donor
Section 1640Inventory of assets
Section 1641Prohibition of donation
Section 1642Investment of money
Section 1643Legal transactions subject to approval
Section 1644Making available assets to the child
Section 1645New trade or business
Section 1646Acquisition with funds of the child
Section 1647(repealed)
Section 1648Reimbursement of outlays
Section 1649Use of the income from the assets of the child
Sections 1650 - 1663(repealed)
Section 1664Limited liability of the parents
Section 1665(repealed)
Section 1666Court measures in the case of endangerment of the best interests of the child
Section 1666aPrinciple of proportionality; priority of public support measures
Section 1667Court measures in the case of endangerment of the assets of the child
Sections 1668 - 1670(repealed)
Section 1671Transfer of sole custody where the parents live apart
Section 1672(repealed)
Section 1673Suspension of parental custody in the case of a legal impediment
Section 1674Suspension of parental custody in the case of a factual impediment
Section 1674aSuspension of the mother’s parental custody for a child delivered by confidential birth
Section 1675Effect of the suspension
Section 1676(repealed)
Section 1677Termination of parental custody by declaration of death
Section 1678Consequences for the other parent of the actual prevention or of the suspension
Section 1679(repealed)
Section 1680Death of a parent or removal of the parental custody
Section 1681Declaration of death of a parent
Section 1682Order that the child remains with persons to whom it relates
Section 1683(repealed)
Section 1684Contact of the child with its parents
Section 1685Contact of the child with other persons to whom it relates
Section 1686Information on the personal circumstances of the child
Section 1686aRights of the biological but not legal father
Section 1687Exercise of joint parental custody when the parents live apart
Section 1687aPower to make decision of the parent without parental custody
Section 1687bParental custody powers of the spouse
Section 1688Decisions of the foster carer
Sections 1689 - 1692(repealed)
Section 1693Court measures where the parents are prevented
Sections 1694, 1695(repealed)
Section 1696Amendment of judicial decisions and of court-approved settlements
Section 1697(repealed)
Section 1697aPrinciple of best interests of child
Section 1698Surrender of the assets of the child; rendering accounts
Section 1698aContinuation of transactions in ignorance that parental custody has ended
Section 1698bContinuation of urgent transactions after the death of the child
Sections 1699 - 1711(repealed)
Title 6
Legal advisership
Section 1712Youth welfare office as legal adviser; tasks
Section 1713Persons entitled to apply
Section 1714Occurrence of legal advisership
Section 1715Termination of legal advisership
Section 1716Effects of legal advisership
Section 1717Requirement of habitual residence on domestic territory
Sections 1718 - 1740(repealed)
Title 7
Subtitle 1
Adoption of minors
Section 1741Admissibility of the adoption
Section 1742Adoption only as child of the spouses
Section 1743Minimum age
Section 1744Probationary period
Section 1745Prohibition of adoption
Section 1746Consent of the child
Section 1747Consent of the parents of the child
Section 1748Substitution of the consent of a parent
Section 1749Consent of the spouse
Section 1750Declaration of consent
Section 1751Effect of parental consent, maintenance obligation
Section 1752Order of the family court, application
Section 1753Adoption after death
Section 1754Effect of adoption
Section 1755Extinction of relationships
Section 1756Continuation of relationships
Section 1757Name of the child
Section 1758Prohibition on disclosure and exploratory questioning
Section 1759Cancellation of the adoption relationship
Section 1760Setting aside for lack of declarations
Section 1761Impediments preventing cancellation
Section 1762Entitlement to apply; period for filing application, form
Section 1763Cancellation by the court of its own motion
Section 1764Effect of cancellation
Section 1765Name of the child after the cancellation
Section 1766Marriage between adoptive parent and child
Section 1766aAdoption of children of a partner who is not a spouse
Subtitle 2
Adoption of persons of full age
Section 1767Admissibility of adoption, applicable provisions
Section 1768Application
Section 1769Prohibition of adoption
Section 1770Effect of adoption
Section 1771Cancellation of the adoption relationship
Section 1772Adoption with the effects of the adoption of a minor
Division 3
Guardianship, legal curatorship, custodianship
Title 1
Subtitle 1
Creation of guardianship
Section 1773Prerequisites
Section 1774Order by the court of its own motion
Section 1775More than one guardian
Section 1776Right of the parents to name the guardian
Section 1777Prerequisites for the right to name the guardian
Section 1778Passing over the guardian named
Section 1779Selection by the family court
Section 1780Lack of capacity to be a guardian
Section 1781Unsuitability to be a guardian
Section 1782Exclusion by the parents
Section 1783(repealed)
Section 1784Official or church officer as guardian
Section 1785Duty to assume guardianship
Section 1786Right to refuse
Section 1787Consequences of unjustified refusal
Section 1788Coercive fine
Section 1789Appointment by the family court
Section 1790Appointment subject to a reservation
Section 1791Certificate of appointment
Section 1791aGuardianship by association
Section 1791bOfficial guardianship of the Youth Welfare Office by appointment
Section 1791cStatutory official guardianship of the Youth Welfare Office
Section 1792Supervisory guardian
Subtitle 2
Conducting of the guardianship
Section 1793Duties of the guardian, liability of the ward
Section 1794Restriction as a result of curatorship
Section 1795Exclusion of power of agency
Section 1796Revocation of power of agency
Section 1797More than one guardian
Section 1798Differences of opinion
Section 1799Duties and rights of the supervisory guardian
Section 1800Scope of care for the person
Section 1801Religious education
Section 1802Inventory of assets
Section 1803Management of assets in the case of inheritance or donation
Section 1804Donations made by the guardian
Section 1805Use for the guardian
Section 1806Investment of money held in trust for a ward
Section 1807Nature of investment
Section 1808(repealed)
Section 1809Investment with blocking note
Section 1810Cooperation of supervisory guardian or family court
Section 1811Other investment
Section 1812Dispositions over claims and securities
Section 1813Transactions not requiring approval
Section 1814Deposit of bearer instruments
Section 1815Change of registration and conversion of bearer instruments
Section 1816Blocking of book-entry securities
Section 1817Exemption
Section 1818Order of deposit
Section 1819Approval in the case of deposit
Section 1820Approval after change of registration and conversion
Section 1821Approval of transactions relating to plots of land, ships or ships under construction
Section 1822Approval for other transactions
Section 1823Approval where the ward has a trade or business
Section 1824Approval for making available objects to the ward for their use
Section 1825General authorisation
Section 1826Hearing of the supervisory guardian before giving the approval
Section 1827(repealed)
Section 1828Pronouncement of approval
Section 1829Subsequent approval
Section 1830Right of revocation of the other party
Section 1831Unilateral legal transaction without approval
Section 1832Ratification by the supervisory guardian
Section 1833Liability of the guardian
Section 1834Duty to pay interest
Section 1835Reimbursement of outlays
Section 1835aReimbursement for expenses
Section 1836Payment of the guardian
Sections 1836a and 1836b(repealed)
Section 1836cFunds to be applied by the ward
Section 1836dDestitution of the ward
Section 1836eStatutory devolution of claim
Subtitle 3
Care and supervision of the family court
Section 1837Advice and supervision
Section 1838(repealed)
Section 1839Duty of information of the guardian
Section 1840Report and rendering of account
Section 1841Contents of the accounts rendered
Section 1842Cooperation of the supervisory guardian
Section 1843Examination by the family court
Section 1844(repealed)
Section 1845(repealed)
Section 1846Interim measures of the family court
Section 1847Hearing of the relatives
Section 1848(repealed)
Subtitle 4
Cooperation of the Youth Welfare Office
Sections 1849, 1850(repealed)
Section 1851Duties of notification
Subtitle 5
Exempted guardianship
Section 1852Exemption by the father
Section 1853Exemption from deposit and blocking
Section 1854Exemption from duty to render accounts
Section 1855Exemption by the mother
Section 1856Prerequisites for exemption
Section 1857Cancellation of the exemption by the family court
Section 1857aExemption of the Youth Welfare Office and the association
Sections 1858 - 1881(repealed)
Subtitle 6
Termination of the guardianship
Section 1882Cessation of the prerequisites
Section 1883(repealed)
Section 1884Ward missing and declaration of death of the ward
Section 1885(repealed)
Section 1886Removal of the sole guardian
Section 1887Removal of the Youth Welfare Office or association
Section 1888Removal of officials and church officers
Section 1889Removal on application by the guardian
Section 1890Surrender of assets and rendering accounts
Section 1891Cooperation of the supervisory guardian
Section 1892Examination and approval of the account
Section 1893Continuation of transactions after the termination of the guardianship, return of certificates
Section 1894Notification on death of the guardian
Section 1895Termination of office of the supervisory guardian
Title 2
Legal custodianship
Section 1896Prerequisites
Section 1897Appointment of a natural person
Section 1898Duty to assume custodianship
Section 1899More than one custodian
Section 1900Custodianship by association or public authority
Section 1901Scope of the custodianship, duties of the custodian
Section 1901aLiving will
Section 1901bDiscussion to ascertain the patient’s will
Section 1901cWishes in writing with regard to custodianship, enduring power of attorney
Section 1902Representation of the person under custodianship
Section 1903Reservation of consent
Section 1904Ratification by the custodianship court in the case of medical treatment
Section 1905Sterilisation
Section 1906Ratification by the custodianship court in the case of placement involving deprivation of liberty and in the case of measures involving deprivation of liberty
Section 1906aRatification by the custodianship court in the case of coercive measures by physicians
Section 1907Ratification by the custodianship court in the case of the abandonment of rented residence
Section 1908Ratification by the custodianship court with regard to advancement
Section 1908aPrecautionary appointment of a custodian and order of reservation of consent for minors
Section 1908bRemoval of the custodian
Section 1908cAppointment of a new custodian
Section 1908dCancellation or alteration of custodianship and reservation of consent
Section 1908e(repealed)
Section 1908fRecognition as custodianship association
Section 1908gPublic authority custodian
Section 1908h(repealed)
Section 1908iProvisions applicable accordingly
Section 1908k(repealed)
Title 3
Section 1909Supplementary curatorship
Section 1910(repealed)
Section 1911Curatorship of absentees
Section 1912Curatorship for an unborn child
Section 1913Curatorship for unknown persons involved
Section 1914Curatorship for collected assets
Section 1915Application of guardianship law
Section 1916Designation as supplementary curator
Section 1917Naming of the supplementary curator by testator and third parties
Section 1918Termination of the curatorship by operation of law
Section 1919Cancellation of the curatorship on cessation of reason
Section 1920(repealed)
Section 1921Cancellation of the curatorship of absentees
Book 5
Law of succession
Division 1
Section 1922Universal succession
Section 1923Capacity to inherit
Section 1924Heirs on intestacy of the first degree
Section 1925Heirs on intestacy of the second degree
Section 1926Heirs on intestacy of the third degree
Section 1927More than one share of the inheritance in the case of multiple relationship
Section 1928Heirs on intestacy of the fourth degree
Section 1929More distant degrees
Section 1930Priority of the degrees
Section 1931Right of intestate succession of the spouse
Section 1932Preferential benefit of the spouse
Section 1933Exclusion of the right of succession of the spouse
Section 1934Right of succession of spouse who is a relative
Section 1935Consequences of increase of share of the inheritance
Section 1936Right of intestate succession of the State
Section 1937Appointment of heir by testamentary disposition
Section 1938Disinheritance without appointment of an heir
Section 1939Legacy
Section 1940Testamentary burden
Section 1941Contract of inheritance
Division 2
Legal position of the heir
Title 1
Acceptance and disclaimer of the inheritance; supervision of the probate court
Section 1942Devolution and disclaimer of the inheritance
Section 1943Acceptance and disclaimer of the inheritance
Section 1944Period for disclaimer
Section 1945Form of disclaimer
Section 1946Date for acceptance or disclaimer
Section 1947Condition and stipulation as to time
Section 1948More than one ground of entitlement
Section 1949Mistake as to the ground of entitlement
Section 1950Partial acceptance; partial disclaimer
Section 1951More than one share of the inheritance
Section 1952Inheritability of the right of disclaimer
Section 1953Effect of disclaimer
Section 1954Period of avoidance
Section 1955Form of avoidance
Section 1956Avoidance of failure to disclaim in good time
Section 1957Effect of avoidance
Section 1958Judicial assertion of claims against the heir
Section 1959Management before the disclaimer
Section 1960Securing the estate; curator of the estate
Section 1961Curatorship of the estate on application
Section 1962Jurisdiction of the probate court
Section 1963Maintenance for the mother-to-be of an heir
Section 1964Presumption that the treasury is heir
Section 1965Public invitation to register the rights of succession
Section 1966Legal position of the treasury before determination
Title 2
Liability of the heir for the obligations of the estate
Subtitle 1
Obligations of the estate
Section 1967Liability of heir, obligations of the estate
Section 1968Costs of funeral
Section 1969Maintenance for 30 days
Subtitle 2
Judicial call for the creditors of the estate
Section 1970Notification of the claims
Section 1971Creditors not affected
Section 1972Rights not affected
Section 1973Exclusion of creditors of the estate
Section 1974Defence of withheld information
Subtitle 3
Restriction of the liability of the heir
Section 1975Administration of estate; estate insolvency
Section 1976Effect on legal relationships extinguished by merger
Section 1977Effect on a set-off
Section 1978Responsibility of the heir for previous administration, reimbursement of expenses
Section 1979Discharge of obligations of the estate
Section 1980Application for opening of estate insolvency proceedings
Section 1981Order of administration of the estate
Section 1982Refusal to order administration of the estate for insufficiency of assets
Section 1983Notice by publication
Section 1984Effect of the order
Section 1985Duties and liability of the administrator of the estate
Section 1986Surrender of the estate
Section 1987Payment of the administrator of the estate
Section 1988End and cancellation of administration of the estate
Section 1989Defence by the heir of exhaustion of assets
Section 1990Defence by the heir as to insufficiency of assets
Section 1991Consequences of defence as to insufficiency of assets
Section 1992Over-indebtedness as a result of legacies and testamentary burdens
Subtitle 4
Filing of an inventory, unlimited liability of the heir
Section 1993Filing of an inventory
Section 1994Inventory period
Section 1995Length of the period
Section 1996Fixing a new period
Section 1997Suspension of the expiry of the period
Section 1998Death of the heir before expiry of the period
Section 1999Notice to the court
Section 2000Ineffectiveness of the fixing of the period
Section 2001Contents of the inventory
Section 2002Preparation of the inventory by the heir
Section 2003Official preparation of the inventory
Section 2004Reference to an existing inventory
Section 2005Unlimited liability of the heir if the inventory is incorrect
Section 2006Declaration in lieu of an oath
Section 2007Liability in the case of more than one share of the inheritance
Section 2008Inventory for an inheritance that is part of common matrimonial property
Section 2009Effect of filing of inventory
Section 2010Inspection of the inventory
Section 2011No inventory period for the treasury as heir
Section 2012No inventory period for the curator and administrator of the estate
Section 2013Consequences of the unlimited liability of the heir
Subtitle 5
Suspensive defences
Section 2014Defence within three months
Section 2015Defence of judicial call procedure
Section 2016Exclusion of defences in the case of unlimited liability of the heir
Section 2017Beginning of the period of time in the case of curatorship of the estate
Title 3
Claim to inheritance
Section 2018Duty to surrender of the possessor of the inheritance
Section 2019Direct substitution
Section 2020Emoluments and fruits
Section 2021Duty to surrender under principles of unjust enrichment
Section 2022Reimbursement of outlays and expenses
Section 2023Liability after litigation is pending and for emoluments and outlays
Section 2024Liability with knowledge
Section 2025Liability in the case of tort
Section 2026No reliance on acquisition by prescription
Section 2027Duty of information of the possessor of the inheritance
Section 2028Duty of information of occupant of house
Section 2029Liability in the case of individual claims by the heir
Section 2030Legal position of the acquirer of the inheritance
Section 2031Claim to surrender of a person declared dead
Title 4
More than one heir
Subtitle 1
Legal relationship of the heirs between themselves
Section 2032Community of heirs
Section 2033Right of disposition of the co-heir
Section 2034Right of preemption as against seller
Section 2035Right of preemption as against buyer
Section 2036Liability of buyer of share of the inheritance
Section 2037Onward alienation of the share of the inheritance
Section 2038Joint management of the estate
Section 2039Estate claims
Section 2040Alienation of objects of the estate, set-off
Section 2041Direct substitution
Section 2042Partitioning
Section 2043Postponement of partitioning
Section 2044Exclusion of partitioning
Section 2045Postponement of partitioning
Section 2046Discharge of obligations of the estate
Section 2047Distribution of the surplus
Section 2048Directions by the deceased for partitioning
Section 2049Taking over of a farm
Section 2050Duty to adjust advancements for descendants as heirs on intestacy
Section 2051Duty to adjust advancements if a descendant does not inherit
Section 2052Duty to adjust advancements for descendants as heirs by will
Section 2053Gift to more remote or adopted descendant
Section 2054Gift from the common matrimonial property
Section 2055Carrying out the adjustment
Section 2056Excess gifts
Section 2057Duty of information
Section 2057aDuty to adjust advancements in the case of special payments by one descendant
Subtitle 2
Legal relationship between the heirs and the creditors of the estate
Section 2058Joint and several liability
Section 2059Liability until division
Section 2060Liability after division
Section 2061Judicial call for the creditors of the estate
Section 2062Application for administration of the estate
Section 2063Filing of an inventory, limitation of liability
Division 3
Title 1
General provisions
Section 2064Made in person
Section 2065Determination by third parties
Section 2066Heirs on intestacy of the testator
Section 2067Relatives of the testator
Section 2068Children of the testator
Section 2069Descendants of the testator
Section 2070Descendants of a third party
Section 2071Group of persons
Section 2072The poor
Section 2073Ambiguous designation
Section 2074Condition precedent
Section 2075Condition subsequent
Section 2076Condition for the benefit of a third party
Section 2077Ineffectiveness of testamentary dispositions on dissolution of marriage or engagement
Section 2078Avoidance for mistake or duress
Section 2079Avoidance for omission of a person entitled to a compulsory portion
Section 2080Person entitled to avoid
Section 2081Declaration of avoidance
Section 2082Period of avoidance
Section 2083Defence of voidability
Section 2084Interpretation favouring effectiveness
Section 2085Partial ineffectiveness
Section 2086Reservation of right to make addition
Title 2
Appointment of heirs
Section 2087Gift of assets, of fraction of assets or of individual objects
Section 2088Appointment to fractions
Section 2089Increase of the fractions
Section 2090Decrease of fractions
Section 2091Undetermined fractions
Section 2092Partial appointment to fractions
Section 2093Joint share of the inheritance
Section 2094Accrual
Section 2095Accrued share of the inheritance
Section 2096Substitute heir
Section 2097Rule of interpretation in the case of substitute heir
Section 2098Mutual appointment as substitute heir
Section 2099Substitute heir and accrual
Title 3
Appointment of a reversionary heir
Section 2100Reversionary heir
Section 2101Reversionary heir not yet conceived
Section 2102Reversionary heir and substitute heir
Section 2103Order to surrender the inheritance
Section 2104Heirs on intestacy as reversionary heirs
Section 2105Heirs on intestacy as provisional heirs
Section 2106Occurrence of reversionary succession
Section 2107Childless provisional heir
Section 2108Capacity to inherit; inheritability of the reversionary succession
Section 2109End of effectiveness of reversionary succession
Section 2110Scope of the right of reversionary succession
Section 2111Direct substitution
Section 2112Right of alienation of the provisional heir
Section 2113Dispositions of plots of land, ships and ships under construction; gifts
Section 2114Dispositions of mortgage claims, land charges and annuity land charges
Section 2115Dispositions of compulsory enforcement against provisional heir
Section 2116Deposit of securities
Section 2117Change of registration; conversion
Section 2118Blocking note in debt ledger
Section 2119Investment of money
Section 2120Duty of reversionary heir to consent
Section 2121List of objects of inheritance
Section 2122Determination of the condition of the inheritance
Section 2123Economic plan
Section 2124Costs of maintenance
Section 2125Outlays; right to remove
Section 2126Extraordinary burdens
Section 2127Right to information of reversionary heir
Section 2128Provision of security
Section 2129Effect of deprivation of management
Section 2130Duty to surrender after the occurrence of reversionary succession, duty to render accounts
Section 2131Scope of duty of care
Section 2132No liability for ordinary wear and tear
Section 2133Improper or excessive taking of fruits
Section 2134Own use
Section 2135Lease and usufructuary lease in reversionary succession
Section 2136Release of the provisional heir
Section 2137Rule of interpretation for the release
Section 2138Restricted duty to surrender
Section 2139Effect of occurrence of reversionary succession
Section 2140Dispositions of the provisional heir after occurrence of reversionary succession
Section 2141Maintenance for the mother-to-be of a reversionary heir
Section 2142Disclaimer of reversionary succession
Section 2143Restoration of extinguished legal relationships
Section 2144Liability of the reversionary heir for the obligations of the estate
Section 2145Liability of the provisional heir for the obligations of the estate
Section 2146Duty of provisional heir to notify creditors of the estate
Title 4
Section 2147Person charged with a legacy
Section 2148More than one person charged with a legacy
Section 2149Legacy for heirs on intestacy
Section 2150Preferential legacy
Section 2151Right to decide of the person charged or of a third person in the event of more than one person provided for
Section 2152Choice of persons provided for
Section 2153Determination of shares
Section 2154Optional legacy
Section 2155General legacy
Section 2156Legacy for a special purpose
Section 2157Joint legacy
Section 2158Accrual
Section 2159Independence of the accrual
Section 2160Prior death of person provided for
Section 2161Where the person charged does not inherit
Section 2162Thirty-year period for a suspended legacy
Section 2163Exceptions to the thirty-year period
Section 2164Extension to accessories and claims to compensation
Section 2165Charges
Section 2166Charge with a mortgage
Section 2167Charge with a blanket mortgage
Section 2168Charge with a blanket land charge
Section 2168aApplication to ships, ships under construction and ship mortgages
Section 2169Legacy of foreign objects
Section 2170Legacy to be procured
Section 2171Impossibility, statutory prohibition
Section 2172Combination, intermixture, mingling of the bequeathed thing
Section 2173Claim as a legacy
Section 2174Claim arising under a legacy
Section 2175Restoration of extinguished legal relationships
Section 2176Devolution of the legacy
Section 2177Devolution in the event of a condition or a time limit
Section 2178Devolution in the event of a person provided for not yet conceived or determined
Section 2179Period pending fulfilment
Section 2180Acceptance and disclaimer
Section 2181Discretionary due date
Section 2182Liability for defects of title
Section 2183Liability for material defects
Section 2184Fruits and emoluments
Section 2185Reimbursement of outlays and expenses
Section 2186Due date of sublegacy or testamentary burden
Section 2187Liability of the main legatee
Section 2188Reduction of the charges
Section 2189Directions concerning priority
Section 2190Substitute legatee
Section 2191Subsequent legatee
Title 5
Testamentary burden
Section 2192Applicable provisions
Section 2193Appointment of the beneficiary, period for fulfilment
Section 2194Claim for fulfilment
Section 2195Relationship between testamentary burden and gift
Section 2196Impossibility of fulfilment
Title 6
Section 2197Appointment of an executor
Section 2198Determination of the executor by a third person
Section 2199Appointment of co-executor or successor
Section 2200Appointment by the probate court
Section 2201Ineffectiveness of the appointment
Section 2202Acceptance and refusal of office
Section 2203Task of the executor
Section 2204Partitioning of the estate between co-heirs
Section 2205Administration of the estate, power of alienation
Section 2206Incurring obligations
Section 2207Extended authority
Section 2208Limitation of the rights of the executor, execution by the heir
Section 2209Permanent execution
Section 2210Thirty-year period for permanent execution
Section 2211Limitation on dispositions of the heir
Section 2212Assertion in court of the rights subject to the execution of the will
Section 2213Assertion in court of claims against the estate
Section 2214Creditors of the heir
Section 2215Inventory of the estate
Section 2216Proper administration of the estate, compliance with directions
Section 2217Making available objects of the estate
Section 2218Legal relationship with the heir; rendering of accounts
Section 2219Liability of the executor
Section 2220Mandatory law
Section 2221Remuneration of the executor
Section 2222Executor for the reversionary heir
Section 2223Executor of a legacy
Section 2224More than one executor
Section 2225Expiry of the office of the executor
Section 2226Notice of termination by the executor
Section 2227Dismissal of the executor
Section 2228Inspection of records
Title 7
The making and revocation of a will
Section 2229Testamentary capacity of minors, lack of testamentary capacity
Section 2230(repealed)
Section 2231Regular wills
Section 2232Public will
Section 2233Special cases
Sections 2234 - 2246(repealed)
Section 2247Holographic will
Section 2248Custody of a holographic will
Section 2249Emergency will made before the mayor
Section 2250Emergency will before three witnesses
Section 2251Emergency will made at sea
Section 2252Period of validity of emergency wills
Section 2253Revocation of the will
Section 2254Revocation by will
Section 2255Revocation by destruction or changes
Section 2256Revocation by the revocation of the will from official custody
Section 2257Revocation of the revocation
Section 2258Revocation by a later will
Section 2258a(repealed)
Section 2258b(repealed)
Section 2259Obligation to deliver
Section 2260(repealed)
Section 2261(repealed)
Section 2262(repealed)
Section 2263Voidness of a prohibition on opening the will
Section 2263a, 2264(repealed)
Title 8
Joint will
Section 2265Joint will made by spouses
Section 2266Joint emergency will
Section 2267Joint holographic will
Section 2268Effect of nullity or dissolution of marriage
Section 2269Reciprocal appointment
Section 2270Reciprocal dispositions
Section 2271Revocation of reciprocal dispositions
Section 2272Revocation of official custody
Section 2273(repealed)
Division 4
Contract of inheritance
Section 2274Entering into contract in person
Section 2275Prerequisites
Section 2276Form
Section 2277(repealed)
Section 2278Permissible contractual dispositions
Section 2279Contractual gifts and burdens, application of section 2077
Section 2280Application of section 2269
Section 2281Avoidance by the testator
Section 2282Representation, form of the avoidance
Section 2283Period of avoidance
Section 2284Confirmation
Section 2285Avoidance by third parties
Section 2286Dispositions inter vivos
Section 2287Gifts adversely affecting the contractual heir
Section 2288Prejudice to the legatee
Section 2289Effect of the contract of inheritance on testamentary dispositions; application of section 2338
Section 2290Cancellation by contract
Section 2291Cancellation by will
Section 2292Cancellation by joint will
Section 2293Revocation in the event of reservation
Section 2294Revocation in the event of the misconduct of the person provided for
Section 2295Revocation in the event of the extinction of a mutual obligation
Section 2296Representation, form of revocation
Section 2297Revocation by will
Section 2298Mutual contract of inheritance
Section 2299Unilateral dispositions
Section 2300Application of sections 2259 and 2263; removal from official or notarial custody
Section 2300a(repealed)
Section 2301Promise of donation mortis causa
Section 2302Unlimited testamentary freedom
Division 5
Compulsory share
Section 2303Person entitled to a compulsory share of the estate; amount of the share
Section 2304Rules of interpretation
Section 2305Additional compulsory share
Section 2306Limitations and charges
Section 2307Bequest of a legacy
Section 2308Avoidance of the disclaimer
Section 2309Right of parents and remoter descendants to a compulsory share
Section 2310Determination of the share of the inheritance for the calculation of the compulsory share
Section 2311Value of the estate
Section 2312Value of a farm
Section 2313Taking account of conditional, uncertain or unsecured rights; duty of determination of the heir
Section 2314Duty of the heir to provide information
Section 2315Counting gifts towards the compulsory share
Section 2316Duty to adjust advancements
Section 2317Creation and transferability of the claim to a compulsory share
Section 2318Burden of the compulsory share in the case of legacies and testamentary burdens
Section 2319Person entitled to a compulsory share as co-heir
Section 2320Compulsory share burden on the heir taking the place of the person entitled to a compulsory share
Section 2321Compulsory share burden in the event of a disclaimer of a legacy
Section 2322Reduction of legacies and testamentary burdens
Section 2323Heir not charged with a compulsory share
Section 2324Deviating directions by the testator concerning the compulsory share burden
Section 2325Claim for the augmentation of compulsory shares in the event of gifts
Section 2326Augmentation to more than half of the intestate portion
Section 2327Receipt of gift by a person entitled to a compulsory share
Section 2328Heir as person entitled to a compulsory share
Section 2329Claim against the recipient of a gift
Section 2330Gift arising from a moral duty
Section 2331Gifts made from common matrimonial property
Section 2331aDeferral
Section 2332Limitation
Section 2333Deprivation of a compulsory share
Section 2334(repealed)
Section 2335(repealed)
Section 2336Form, burden of proof and ineffectiveness of deprivation
Section 2337Forgiveness
Section 2338Limitation of the compulsory share
Division 6
Unworthiness to inherit
Section 2339Grounds for unworthiness to inherit
Section 2340Enforcement of the unworthiness to inherit by avoidance
Section 2341Persons entitled to avoid
Section 2342Action for avoidance
Section 2343Forgiveness
Section 2344Effect of a declaration of unworthiness to inherit
Section 2345Unworthiness to receive a legacy; unworthiness to receive a compulsory share
Division 7
Renunciation of inheritance
Section 2346Effect of the renunciation of inheritance, possibility of limitation
Section 2347Personal requirements, representation
Section 2348Form
Section 2349Extension to descendants
Section 2350Renunciation to the benefit of another
Section 2351Revocation of a renunciation of the inheritance
Section 2352Renunciation of gifts
Division 8
Certificate of inheritance
Section 2353Competence of the probate court, application
Sections 2354 to 2359(repealed)
Section 2360(repealed)
Section 2361Revocation or declaration of invalidity of an inaccurate certificate of inheritance
Section 2362Claim to surrender of the true heir and claim to information
Section 2363Claim to surrender of the reversionary heir and of the executor
Section 2364(repealed)
Section 2365Presumption of legitimacy of the certificate of inheritance
Section 2366Presumption of legal force of a certificate of inheritance
Section 2367Performance for the person named as heir in the certificate of inheritance
Section 2368Executor’s certificate
Section 2369(repealed)
Section 2370Presumption of legal force of a declaration of death
Division 9
Purchase of an inheritance
Section 2371Form
Section 2372Advantages due to purchaser
Section 2373Parts remaining for the seller
Section 2374Duty to surrender
Section 2375Duty to compensate
Section 2376Liability of the seller
Section 2377Restoration of extinguished legal relationships
Section 2378Obligations of the estate
Section 2379Emoluments and charges prior to the sale
Section 2380Devolution of the risk, emoluments and charges after the sale
Section 2381Reimbursement of outlays and expenses
Section 2382Liability of the purchaser in relation to the creditors of the estate
Section 2383Scope of liability of the purchaser
Section 2384The duty of notification of the seller towards the creditors of the estate, right of inspection
Section 2385Application to similar contracts