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Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany

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Übersetzung durch Professor Christian Tomuschat, Professor David P. Currie, Professor Donald P. Kommers und Raymond Kerr, in Kooperation mit dem Sprachendienst des Deutschen Bundestages

Translated by Professor Christian Tomuschat, Professor David P. Currie, Professor Donald P. Kommers and Raymond Kerr, in cooperation with the Language Service of the German Bundestag

Stand: Die Übersetzung berücksichtigt die Änderung(en) des Gesetzes durch das Gesetz vom 19. Dezember 2022 (BGBl. I S. 2478)
Der Stand der deutschsprachigen Dokumentation kann aktueller sein. Vergleichen Sie dazu bitte http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/gg/BJNR000010949.html.

Version information: The translation includes the amendment(s) to the Act by the Act of 19 December 2022 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 2478)
Translations may not be updated at the same time as the German legal provisions displayed on this website. To compare with the current status of the German version, see http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/gg/BJNR000010949.html.

Zur Nutzung dieser Übersetzung lesen Sie bitte den Hinweis unter "Translations".

For conditions governing use of this translation, please see the information provided under "Translations".

I. Basic Rights
Article 1[Human dignity – Human rights – Legally binding force of basic rights]
Article 2[Personal freedoms]
Article 3[Equality before the law]
Article 4[Freedom of faith and conscience]
Article 5[Freedom of expression, arts and sciences]
Article 6[Marriage – Family – Children]
Article 7[School system]
Article 8[Freedom of assembly]
Article 9[Freedom of association]
Article 10[Privacy of correspondence, posts and telecommunications]
Article 11[Freedom of movement]
Article 12[Occupational freedom]
Article 12a[Compulsory military and alternative civilian service]
Article 13[Inviolability of the home]
Article 14[Property – Inheritance – Expropriation]
Article 15[Nationalisation]
Article 16[Citizenship – Extradition]
Article 16a[Right of asylum]
Article 17[Right of petition]
Article 17a[Restriction of basic rights in specific instances]
Article 18[Forfeiture of basic rights]
Article 19[Restriction of basic rights – Legal remedies]
II. The Federation and the Länder
Article 20[Constitutional principles – Right of resistance]
Article 20a[Protection of the natural foundations of life and animals]
Article 21[Political parties]
Article 22[Federal capital – Federal flag]
Article 23[European Union – Protection of basic rights – Principle of subsidiarity]
Article 24[Transfer of sovereign powers – System of collective security]
Article 25[Primacy of international law]
Article 26[Securing international peace]
Article 27[Merchant fleet]
Article 28[Land constitutions – Autonomy of municipalities]
Article 29[New delimitation of the federal territory]
Article 30[Sovereign powers of the Länder]
Article 31[Supremacy of federal law]
Article 32[Foreign relations]
Article 33[Equal citizenship – Public service]
Article 34[Liability for violation of official duty]
Article 35[Legal and administrative assistance and assistance during disasters]
Article 36[Personnel of federal authorities]
Article 37[Federal execution]
III. The Bundestag
Article 38[Elections]
Article 39[Electoral term – Convening]
Article 40[Presidency – Rules of procedure]
Article 41[Scrutiny of elections]
Article 42[Public sittings – Majority decisions]
Article 43[Right to require presence, right of access and right to be heard]
Article 44[Committees of inquiry]
Article 45[Committee on the European Union]
Article 45a[Committees on Foreign Affairs and Defence]
Article 45b[Parliamentary Commissioner for the Armed Forces]
Article 45c[Petitions Committee]
Article 45dParliamentary Oversight Panel
Article 46[Immunities of Members]
Article 47[Right of refusal to give evidence]
Article 48[Candidature – Protection of membership – Remuneration]
Article 49(repealed)
IV. The Bundesrat
Article 50[Functions]
Article 51[Composition – Weighted voting]
Article 52[President – Decisions – Rules of procedure]
Article 53[Attendance of members of the Federal Government]
IVa. The Joint Committee
Article 53a[Composition – Rules of procedure]
V. The Federal President
Article 54[Election – Term of office]
Article 55[Incompatibilities]
Article 56[Oath of office]
Article 57[Substitution]
Article 58[Countersignature]
Article 59[International representation of the Federation]
Article 59a(repealed)
Article 60[Appointment of civil servants – Pardon – Immunity]
Article 61[Impeachment before the Federal Constitutional Court]
VI. The Federal Government
Article 62[Composition]
Article 63[Election of the Federal Chancellor]
Article 64[Appointment and dismissal of Federal Ministers – Oath of office]
Article 65[Power to determine policy guidelines – Department and collegiate responsibility]
Article 65a[Command of the Armed Forces]
Article 66[Incompatibilities]
Article 67[Vote of no confidence]
Article 68[Vote of confidence]
Article 69[Deputy Federal Chancellor – Term of office]
VII. Federal Legislation and Legislative Procedures
Article 70[Division of powers between the Federation and the Länder]
Article 71[Exclusive legislative power of the Federation]
Article 72[Concurrent legislative powers]
Article 73[Matters under exclusive legislative power of the Federation]
Article 74[Matters under concurrent legislative powers]
Article 74a(repealed)
Article 75(repealed)
Article 76[Bills]
Article 77[Legislative procedure – Mediation Committee]
Article 78[Passage of federal laws]
Article 79[Amendment of the Basic Law]
Article 80[Issuance of statutory instruments]
Article 80a[State of tension]
Article 81[Legislative emergency]
Article 82[Certification – Promulgation – Entry into force]
VIII. The Execution of Federal Laws and the Federal Administration
Article 83[Execution by the Länder]
Article 84[Länder administration – Federal oversight]
Article 85[Execution by the Länder on federal commission]
Article 86[Federal administration]
Article 87[Matters]
Article 87a[Armed Forces]
Article 87b[Federal Defence Administration]
Article 87c[Production and utilisation of nuclear energy]
Article 87d[Air transport administration]
Article 87e[Rail transport administration]
Article 87f[Posts and telecommunications]
Article 88[The Federal Bank – The European Central Bank]
Article 89[Federal waterways – Administration of waterways]
Article 90[Federal roads and motorways]
Article 91[Internal emergency]
VIIIa. Joint Tasks
Article 91a[Joint tasks – Responsibility for expenditure]
Article 91b[Education programmes and promotion of research]
Article 91c[Information technology systems]
Article 91d[Comparison of performance]
Article 91e[Cooperation in respect of basic support for persons seeking employment]
IX. The Judiciary
Article 92[Court organisation]
Article 93[Jurisdiction of the Federal Constitutional Court]
Article 94[Composition of the Federal Constitutional Court]
Article 95[Supreme federal courts]
Article 96[Other federal courts]
Article 97[Judicial independence]
Article 98[Legal status of judges – Impeachment]
Article 99[Constitutional disputes within a Land]
Article 100[Concrete judicial review]
Article 101[Ban on extraordinary courts]
Article 102[Abolition of capital punishment]
Article 103[Fair trial]
Article 104[Deprivation of liberty]
X. Finance
Article 104a[Apportionment of expenditures – Financial system – Liability]
Article 104b[Financial assistance for investments]
Article 104c[Financial assistance for investments in municipal education infrastructure]
Article 104d[Financial assistance for investments in social housing]
Article 105[Distribution of powers regarding tax laws]
Article 106[Apportionment of tax revenue and yield of fiscal monopolies]
Article 106a[Federal grants for local public transport]
Article 106b[Länder share of motor vehicle tax]
Article 107[Distribution of tax revenue – Financial equalisation among the Länder – Supplementary grants]
Article 108[Financial administration of the Federation and the Länder – Financial courts]
Article 109[Budget management in the Federation and the Länder]
Article 109a[Budgetary emergencies]
Article 110[Federal budget]
Article 111[Interim budget management]
Article 112[Extrabudgetary expenditures]
Article 113[Increase of expenditures]
Article 114[Submission and auditing of accounts]
Article 115[Limits of borrowing]
Xa. State of Defence
Article 115a[Declaration of a state of defence]
Article 115b[Power of command of the Federal Chancellor]
Article 115c[Extension of the legislative powers of the Federation]
Article 115d[Urgent bills]
Article 115e[Joint Committee]
Article 115f[Use of Federal Border Police – Extended powers of instruction]
Article 115g[Federal Constitutional Court]
Article 115h[Expiry of electoral terms and terms of office]
Article 115i[Powers of the Land governments]
Article 115k[Rank and duration of emergency provisions]
Article 115l[Repeal of emergency measures – Conclusion of peace]
XI. Transitional and Concluding Provisions
Article 116[Definition of “German” – Restoration of citizenship]
Article 117[Suspended entry into force of two basic rights]
Article 118[New delimitation of Baden and Württemberg]
Article 118a[New delimitation of Berlin and Brandenburg]
Article 119[Refugees and expellees]
Article 120[Occupation costs – Burdens resulting from the war]
Article 120a[Equalisation of burdens]
Article 121[Definition of “majority of the members”]
Article 122[Date of transmission of legislative powers]
Article 123[Continued applicability of pre-existing law]
Article 124[Continued applicability of law within the scope of exclusive legislative power]
Article 125[Continued applicability of law within the scope of concurrent legislative power]
Article 125a[Continued applicability of federal law – Replacement by Land law]
Article 125b[Continued applicability of framework laws – Deviation power of the Länder]
Article 125c[Continued applicability of law within the scope of joint tasks]
Article 126[Determination about continued applicability of law as federal law]
Article 127[Extension of law to the French zone and to Berlin]
Article 128[Continued authority to issue instructions]
Article 129[Continued authority to issue legal acts]
Article 130[Transfer of existing administrative institutions]
Article 131[Persons formerly in the public service]
Article 132[Retirement of civil servants]
Article 133[Succession to the Administration of the Combined Economic Area]
Article 134[Succession to Reich assets]
Article 135[Assets in case of territorial changes between the Länder]
Article 135a[Old debts]
Article 136[First convening of the Bundesrat]
Article 137[Right of state employees to stand for election]
Article 138[South German notaries]
Article 139[Continued applicability of denazification provisions]
Article 140[Law of religious denominations]
Article 141[“Bremen Clause”]
Article 142[Reservation in favour of basic rights in Land constitutions]
Article 142a(repealed)
Article 143[Duration of derogations from the Basic Law]
Article 143a[Exclusive legislative power concerning federal railways]
Article 143b[Transformation of the Deutsche Bundespost]
Article 143c[Compensation for the cessation of joint tasks]
Article 143d[Transitional provisions relating to consolidation assistance]
Article 143e[Federal motorways, transformation of commissioned administration]
Article 143f[Financial relations within the federal system of government]
Article 143g[Continued applicability of Article 107]
Article 144[Ratification of the Basic Law – Berlin]
Article 145[Entry into force of the Basic Law]
Article 146[Duration of the Basic Law]
Extracts from the German Constitution of 11 August 1919 (Weimar Constitution)
Religion and Religious Societies
Article 136
Article 137
Article 138
Article 139
Article 141