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German Code of Criminal Procedure
(Strafprozeßordnung – StPO)

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Auf der Grundlage der Übersetzung von Brian Duffett und Monika Ebinger, aktualisiert durch Kathleen Müller-Rostin und Iyamide Mahdi

Vollständige Überarbeitung und laufende Aktualisierung durch Ute Reusch

Original translation by Brian Duffett and Monika Ebinger, updated by Kathleen Müller-Rostin and Iyamide Mahdi

Translation completely revised and regularly updated by Ute Reusch

Stand: Die Übersetzung berücksichtigt die Änderung(en) des Gesetzes durch Artikel 2 des Gesetzes vom 25. März 2022 (BGBl. I, S. 571)
Der Stand der deutschsprachigen Dokumentation kann aktueller sein. Vergleichen Sie dazu bitte http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/stpo/BJNR006290950.html.

Version information: The translation includes the amendments to the Act by Article 2 of the Act of 25 March 2022 (Federal Law Gazette I, p. 571)
Translations may not be updated at the same time as the German legal provisions displayed on this website. To compare with the current status of the German version, see http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/stpo/BJNR006290950.html.

Zur Nutzung dieser Übersetzung lesen Sie bitte den Hinweis unter "Translations".

For conditions governing use of this translation, please see the information provided under "Translations".

Book 1
General provisions
Division 1
Substantive jurisdiction of courts
Section 1Operation of Courts Constitution Act
Section 2Joinder and severance of criminal cases
Section 3Meaning of ‘connected’
Section 4Joinder and severance of pending criminal cases
Section 5Decisive proceedings
Section 6Review of substantive jurisdiction
Section 6aJurisdiction of particular criminal divisions
Division 2
Section 7Venue at place of commission
Section 8Venue at domicile or habitual residence
Section 9Venue at place of apprehension
Section 10Venue for offences committed abroad on board ships or aircraft
Section 10aVenue for offences committed abroad at sea
Section 11Venue for offences committed abroad by extraterritorial German nationals and German civil servants
Section 11aVenue for offences committed abroad by soldiers on special foreign deployment
Section 12Concurrence of more than one venue
Section 13Venue for connected criminal cases
Section 13aDetermination of jurisdiction by Federal Court of Justice
Section 14Determination of jurisdiction by common upper court
Section 15Venue established by assignment owing to competent court’s impediment
Section 16Review of local jurisdiction; objection of lack of jurisdiction
Sections 17 and 18(repealed)
Section 19Determination of jurisdiction in event of disputed jurisdiction
Section 20Investigatory acts by court lacking jurisdiction
Section 21Powers in exigent circumstances
Division 3
Exclusion and challenge of court personnel
Section 22Debarment from exercising judicial office by law
Section 23Debarment of judges for participating in contested decision
Section 24Challenge of judges; fear of bias
Section 25Time point for challenge
Section 26Procedure for challenge
Section 26aRejection of inadmissible motion for challenge
Section 27Decision on admissible motion for challenge
Section 28Appellate remedy
Section 29Procedure following challenge of judge
Section 30Judge’s self-recusal and ex officio challenge
Section 31Lay judges, registry clerks
Division 4
Management of files and communications in proceedings
Section 32Electronic file management; authorisation to issue statutory instruments
Section 32aElectronic communications with prosecuting authorities and courts; authorisation to issue statutory instruments
Section 32bCreation and transmission of electronic documents used by prosecuting authorities and courts; authorisation to issue statutory instruments
Section 32cElectronic forms; authorisation to issue statutory instruments
Section 32dObligation of electronic transmission
Section 32eConversion of documents for file management purposes
Section 32fInspection of files; authorisation to issue statutory instrument
Division 4a
Court decisions
Section 33Right to be heard before decision is rendered
Section 33aRestoration of status quo ante following breach of right to be heard
Section 34Reasons for contestable and rejection decisions
Section 34aLegal force by virtue of order following rejection of appellate remedy
Section 35Notification of decisions
Section 35aInstruction on appellate remedies
Division 4b
Procedure in respect of service
Section 36Service and enforcement of decisions
Section 37Procedure for service
Section 38Direct summons
Section 39(repealed)
Section 40Service by publication
Section 41Service on public prosecution office
Division 5
Time limits and restoration of status quo ante
Section 42Calculation of time limits determined in days
Section 43Calculation of time limits determined in weeks and months
Section 44Restoration of status quo ante following failure to observe time limits
Section 45Requirements of application for restoration of status quo ante
Section 46Jurisdiction, appellate remedy
Section 47No suspension of enforcement
Division 6
Section 48Obligations on witnesses; summons
Section 48aParticularly vulnerable witnesses; requirement of expedited action
Section 49Examination of Federal President
Section 50Examination of members of parliament and of government
Section 51Consequences of witness’s failure to appear in court
Section 52Right of accused’s relatives to refuse testimony
Section 53Right to refuse testimony on professional grounds
Section 53aRight of persons involved to refuse testimony
Section 54Authorisation for members of public service to testify
Section 55Right to refuse to give information
Section 56Substantiation of grounds for refusal to testify
Section 57Instruction
Section 58Examination; identity parade
Section 58aVideo and audio recording of examination
Section 58bExamination by way of audio-visual transmission
Section 59Administration of oath
Section 60Prohibitions in respect of administration of oath
Section 61Right to refuse to give testimony under oath
Section 62Administration of oath in preparatory proceedings
Section 63Administration of oath on examination by commissioned or requested judge
Section 64Form of oath
Section 65Affirmation of truth of testimony equivalent to oath
Section 66Taking of oath by hearing or speech impaired persons
Section 67Reliance on prior oath
Section 68Examination as to witness’s identity; limitation of information, victim protection
Section 68aLimitation of right to ask questions to protect privacy
Section 68bAssistance of legal counsel for witnesses
Section 69Examination as to subject matter
Section 70Consequences of undue refusal to testify or take oath
Section 71Compensation of witnesses
Division 7
Experts and inspection
Section 72Application of provisions concerning witnesses to experts
Section 73Selection of experts
Section 74Challenge of experts
Section 75Experts’ obligation to render opinion
Section 76Experts’ privilege of refusal to render opinion
Section 77Experts’ failure to appear in court or undue refusal to render opinion
Section 78Judicial direction of experts’ activity
Section 79Administration of oath to experts
Section 80Preparation of opinion through further clarification
Section 80aPreparation of opinion during preliminary investigation
Section 81Placement of accused during preparation of opinion
Section 81aPhysical examination of accused; permissible physical interventions
Section 81bPhotographs and fingerprints of accused
Section 81cExamination of other persons
Section 81dPhysical examination by persons of same sex
Section 81eMolecular and genetic analysis
Section 81fProcedure for molecular and genetic analysis
Section 81gDNA profiling
Section 81hSerial DNA screening
Section 82Form of opinion in preliminary investigation
Section 83Order for rendering of new opinion
Section 84Compensation of experts
Section 85Expert witnesses
Section 86Judicial inspection
Section 87Post-mortem, autopsy, exhumation
Section 88Identification of deceased before autopsy
Section 89Extent of autopsy
Section 90Autopsy of newborn
Section 91Examination of corpse upon suspicion of poisoning
Section 92Opinions upon suspicion of counterfeiting of money or official stamps
Section 93Handwriting analysis
Division 8
Investigation measures
Section 94Securing and seizure of objects for evidentiary purposes
Section 95Obligation to surrender
Section 95aDeferring notification of accused; prohibition of disclosure
Section 96Papers in official custody
Section 97Prohibition of seizure
Section 98Procedure for seizure
Section 98aDragnet investigation
Section 98bProcedure for dragnet investigation
Section 98cAutomated data matching with available data
Section 99Seizure of postal items and request for information
Section 100Procedure for seizure of postal items and request for information
Section 100aTelecommunications surveillance
Section 100bCovert remote search of information technology systems
Section 100cAcoustic surveillance of private premises
Section 100dCore area of private conduct of life; persons authorised to refuse to give evidence
Section 100eProcedure for measures under sections 100a to 100c
Section 100fAcoustic surveillance outside of private premises
Section 100gTraffic data capture
Section 100hOther measures outside of private premises
Section 100iTechnical investigation measures in respect of mobile terminals
Section 100jSubscriber data request
Section 100kCapture of usage data in respect of telemedia services
Section 101Procedural rules for undercover measures
Section 101aCourt decision; labelling and analysis of data; notification requirements in respect of traffic and usage data
Section 101bStatistics; reporting requirements
Section 102Search of accused’s premises and person
Section 103Search of other persons’ premises
Section 104Night-time search
Section 105Procedure for searches
Section 106Calling in occupant of premises to be searched
Section 107Notification of reason for search; inventory
Section 108Seizure of other objects
Section 109Marking of seized objects
Section 110Examination of identity papers and electronic storage media
Section 110aUndercover investigators
Section 110bProcedure for deployment of undercover investigators
Section 110cPowers of undercover investigators
Section 110dSpecial procedure for operations to investigate offences under sections 176e and 184b Criminal Code
Section 111Setting up of checkpoints at public places
Section 111aProvisional disqualification from driving
Section 111bSeizure to secure confiscation or rendering unusable of object
Section 111cEnforcement of seizure
Section 111dEffect of enforcement of seizure; return of movable property
Section 111eAsset seizure to secure confiscation of equivalent sum of money
Section 111fEnforcement of asset seizure
Section 111gSetting aside of enforcement of asset seizure
Section 111hEffect of enforcement of asset seizure
Section 111iInsolvency proceedings
Section 111jProcedure for ordering seizure and asset seizure
Section 111kProcedure for enforcing seizure and asset seizure
Section 111lNotification requirements
Section 111mManagement of seized or attached items
Section 111nSurrender of movable property
Section 111oProcedure for surrender
Section 111pEmergency sale
Section 111qSeizure of manifested content and equipment
Division 9
Arrest and provisional arrest
Section 112Conditions for remand detention; grounds for arrest
Section 112aDanger of recidivism as ground for arrest
Section 113Remand detention for less serious offences
Section 114Warrant of arrest
Section 114aIssuance of warrant of arrest; translations
Section 114bInstruction of arrested accused
Section 114cNotification of relatives
Section 114dInformation communicated to penal institution
Section 114eInformation passed on by penal institution
Section 115Appearance before competent judge
Section 115aAppearance before judge at nearest local court
Section 116Suspension of enforcement of warrant of arrest
Section 116aSuspension upon provision of security
Section 116bRelationship between remand detention and other measures involving deprivation of liberty
Section 117Review of detention
Section 118Procedure for review of detention
Section 118aOral hearing for review of remand detention
Section 118bApplication of provisions concerning appellate remedies
Section 119Restrictions during remand detention relating to grounds for arrest
Section 119aCourt decision on measure taken by enforcing authority
Section 120Revocation of warrant of arrest
Section 121Continuation of remand detention beyond six months
Section 122Special review of detention by higher regional court
Section 122aMaximum duration of remand detention in case of danger of recidivism
Section 123Revocation of measures to suspend enforcement of detention
Section 124Forfeiture of security paid
Section 125Competence for issuance of warrant of arrest
Section 126Competence for further court decisions
Section 126aProvisional placement
Section 127Provisional arrest
Section 127aExemption from order for or continuation of provisional arrest
Section 127bProvisional arrest and warrant of arrest in accelerated proceedings
Section 128Appearance following provisional arrest
Section 129Appearance following provisional arrest after preferment of public charges
Section 130Warrant of arrest prior to filing request to prosecute
Division 9a
Further measures to secure criminal prosecution and enforcement of sentence
Section 131Alert for arrest
Section 131aAlert to determine whereabouts
Section 131bPublication of images of accused or witness
Section 131cOrder for and confirmation of searches
Section 132Provision of security; authorised recipient
Division 9b
Provisional disqualification from exercising profession
Section 132aOrder for and revocation of provisional disqualification from exercising profession
Division 10
Examination of accused
Section 133Summons
Section 134Appearance before judge
Section 135Immediate examination
Section 136Examination
Section 136aProhibited examination methods; prohibited evidence
Division 11
Section 137Accused’s right to assistance of defence counsel
Section 138Own choice of defence counsel
Section 138aExclusion of defence counsel
Section 138bExclusion of defence counsel in case of danger to national security
Section 138cCompetence for decision on exclusion of defence counsel
Section 138dProcedure for exclusion of defence counsel
Section 139Transferral of defence to trainee lawyer
Section 140Mandatory defence
Section 141Time point for appointment of court-appointed defence counsel
Section 141aExaminations and identity parades prior to appointment of defence counsel
Section 142Competence and appointment procedure
Section 143Duration and revocation of appointment
Section 143aAppointment of new defence counsel
Section 144Additional court-appointed defence counsel
Section 145Court-appointed defence counsel’s failure or refusal to appear
Section 145aService on defence counsel
Section 146Prohibition of joint defence counsel
Section 146aRejection of accused’s own choice of defence counsel
Section 147Right to inspect files, right of inspection; accused’s right to information
Section 148Accused’s communications with defence counsel
Section 148aImplementation of surveillance measures
Section 149Admission of assisting counsel
Section 150(repealed)
Book 2
Proceedings at first instance
Division 1
Public charges
Section 151Principle of indictment
Section 152Indicting authority; principle of mandatory prosecution
Section 152aProvisions of Land law governing prosecution of elected representatives
Section 153Non-prosecution of petty offences
Section 153aNon-prosecution subject to imposition of conditions and directions
Section 153bNon-prosecution where imposition of penalty may be dispensed with
Section 153cNon-prosecution of offences committed abroad
Section 153dNon-prosecution of offences against national security owing to overriding public interests
Section 153eNon-prosecution of offences against national security for active remorse (tätige Reue)
Section 153fNon-prosecution of offences under Code of Crimes against International Law
Section 154Partial termination upon commission of several offences
Section 154aLimitation of prosecution
Section 154bNon-prosecution in case of extradition and expulsion
Section 154cNon-prosecution of victim of coercion (Nötigung) or extortion
Section 154dProsecution following prior civil-law or administrative-law issue
Section 154eNon-prosecution of casting of false suspicion or insult
Section 154fTermination in case of temporary obstacles
Section 155Scope of judicial investigation and decision
Section 155aVictim–offender mediation
Section 155bConduct of victim–offender mediation
Section 156Withdrawal of charges
Section 157Meaning of ‘indicted accused’ and ‘defendant’
Division 2
Preparation of public charges
Section 158Report of offence; request to prosecute
Section 159Obligation to report finding of corpse and suspicion of unnatural death
Section 160Obligation to clarify facts
Section 160aMeasures directed at persons entitled to refuse testimony on professional grounds
Section 160bDiscussion of status of proceedings with parties
Section 161Public prosecution office’s general investigatory powers
Section 161aExamination of witnesses and experts by public prosecution office
Section 162Investigating judge
Section 163Role of police in preliminary investigation
Section 163aExamination of accused
Section 163bMeasures to establish identity
Section 163cDeprivation of liberty to establish identity
Section 163dStorage and matching of data obtained at checkpoints
Section 163eOrder for observation during police checks
Section 163fLonger-term observation
Section 163gAutomatic vehicle number plate capture
Section 164Arrest of persons disrupting official activities
Section 165Judicial investigatory acts in exigent circumstances
Section 166Accused’s applications to take evidence during judicial examination
Section 167Further directions issued by public prosecution office
Section 168Record of judicial investigatory acts
Section 168aForm of record; recordings
Section 168bRecord of investigating authoritiesʼ investigatory acts
Section 168cRight to be present during judicial examination
Section 168dRight to be present during judicial inspection
Section 168eSeparate examination of witnesses
Section 169Investigating judges at higher regional court and Federal Court of Justice
Section 169aNote of conclusion of investigations
Section 170Decision to prefer public charges
Section 171Order terminating proceedings
Section 172Complaint by aggrieved person; proceedings to compel public charges
Section 173Court procedure after filing of application
Section 174Dismissal of application
Section 175Order for preferment of public charges
Section 176Applicant’s provision of security
Section 177Costs
Division 3
Division 4
Decision on opening of main proceedings
Section 198(repealed)
Section 199Decision on opening of main proceedings
Section 200Content of bill of indictment
Section 201Communication of bill of indictment
Section 202Order for taking of additional evidence
Section 202aDiscussion of status of proceedings with parties
Section 203Decision to open main proceedings
Section 204Decision not to open main proceedings
Section 205Termination owing to temporary obstacles
Section 206Applications not binding on court
Section 206aTermination owing to impediments
Section 206bTermination following legislative amendment
Section 207Content of order opening main proceedings
Section 208(repealed)
Section 209Competence to open proceedings
Section 209aSpecial functional jurisdictions
Section 210Appellate remedies against order opening or refusing to open proceedings
Section 211Resumption following refusal to open main proceedings
Division 5
Preparation of main hearing
Section 212Discussion of status of proceedings with parties
Section 213Setting of date for main hearing
Section 214Summonses issued by presiding judge; gathering of evidence
Section 215Service of order opening main proceedings
Section 216Summoning of defendant
Section 217Time limit for summons
Section 218Summoning of defence counsel
Section 219Defendant’s applications to take evidence
Section 220Direct summons by defendant
Section 221Ex officio gathering of evidence
Section 222Naming of witnesses and expert witnesses
Section 222aNotification of composition of court
Section 222bObjections to composition of court
Section 223Examination by commissioned or requested judges
Section 224Notification of parties of date of hearing
Section 225Judicial inspection by commissioned or requested judges
Section 225aChange of jurisdiction prior to main hearing
Division 6
Main hearing
Section 226Uninterrupted presence
Section 227More than one public prosecutor and defence counsel
Section 228Suspension and interruption
Section 229Maximum period of interruption
Section 230Defendant’s failure to appear
Section 231Defendant’s duty to be present
Section 231aBringing about of unfitness to stand trial with intent
Section 231bContinuation after defendant’s removal to maintain public order
Section 231cLeave of absence of individual defendants and court-appointed defence counsel
Section 232Conduct of hearing despite defendant’s failure to appear
Section 233Defendant’s release from obligation to appear
Section 234Representation of absent defendant
Section 234aRights of defence counsel representing absent defendant
Section 235Restoration of status quo ante in case of hearing in defendant’s absence
Section 236Order for defendant to appear in person
Section 237Joinder of several criminal cases
Section 238Conduct of hearing
Section 239Cross-examination
Section 240Right to ask questions
Section 241Presiding judge’s right to reject questions
Section 241aExamination of underage witnesses by presiding judge
Section 242Decision on admissibility of questions
Section 243Course of main hearing
Section 244Taking of evidence; inquisitorial system; rejection of applications to take evidence
Section 245Extent of taking of evidence; evidence produced
Section 246Rejection of applications to take evidence submitted out of time
Section 246aExamination of expert before taking decision on placement
Section 247Defendant’s removal from courtroom during examination of co-defendants and witnesses
Section 247aOrder for witness examination via audio-visual means
Section 248Discharge of witnesses and experts
Section 249Furnishing of documentary evidence by reading out of documents; taking cognisance of wording of documents
Section 250Principle of examination in person
Section 251Furnishing of documentary evidence by reading out of records
Section 252Prohibition of reading out of records following witness’s refusal to testify
Section 253Reading out of records to refresh memory
Section 254Reading out of judge’s record following confession or in case of contradictions
Section 255Record of statements read out
Section 255aShowing of audio-visual recording of witness examination
Section 256Reading out of statements by public authorities and experts
Section 257Questioning of defendant and right to make statement after taking of evidence
Section 257aForm of applications and proposals regarding questions of procedure
Section 257bDiscussion of status of proceedings with parties
Section 257cNegotiated agreement
Section 258Closing speeches; right to have last word
Section 259Interpreters
Section 260Judgment
Section 261Principle of judge’s free evaluation of evidence
Section 262Decisions on preliminary civil-law issues
Section 263Vote
Section 264Subject matter of judgment
Section 265Change in legal reference or facts
Section 265aQuestioning of accused before conditions or directions
Section 266Supplementary charges
Section 267Reasons for judgment
Section 268Pronouncement of judgment
Section 268aSuspension of enforcement of sentences or measures of reform and prevention on probation
Section 268bOrder for continuation of remand detention
Section 268cInstruction prior to imposition of driving ban
Section 268dInstruction in case of preventive detention reserved
Section 269Prohibition of referral if court of lower rank has jurisdiction
Section 270Referral if court of higher rank has jurisdiction
Section 271Record of main hearing
Section 272Content of record of main hearing
Section 273Additional content of record
Section 274Probative value of record
Section 275Time limit for issue of judgment copy and form of judgment
Division 7
Decision on order for preventive detention reserved in judgment or subsequent order for preventive detention
Section 275aInstitution of proceedings; main hearing; order for placement
Division 8
Proceedings against absent persons
Section 276Meaning of ‘absent’
Sections 277 to 284(repealed)
Section 285Purpose of securing of evidence
Section 286Representation of absent persons
Section 287Notification of absent persons
Section 288Public request to appear before court or report whereabouts
Section 289Taking of evidence by commissioned or requested judge
Section 290Seizure of property
Section 291Publication of seizure orders
Section 292Effect of publication
Section 293Revocation of seizure
Section 294Procedure following preferment of charges
Section 295Safe conduct
Book 3
Appellate remedies
Division 1
General provisions
Section 296Persons entitled to file appellate remedies
Section 297Filing by defence counsel
Section 298Filing by statutory representative
Section 299Making of oral statements following deprivation of liberty
Section 300Incorrect designation of admissible appellate remedy
Section 301Effect of appellate remedy filed by public prosecution office
Section 302Withdrawal and waiver
Section 303Requirement of opponent’s consent to withdrawal
Division 2
Section 304Admissibility
Section 305Decisions not subject to complaint
Section 305aComplaint against order suspending sentence
Section 306Filing; redress proceedings
Section 307No obstacle to enforcement
Section 308Powers of court hearing complaint
Section 309Decision
Section 310Further complaint
Section 311Immediate complaint
Section 311aSubsequent hearing of opponent
Division 3
Appeal on points of fact and law
Section 312Admissibility
Section 313Appeal on points of fact and law against minor fines and regulatory fines subject to acceptance for adjudication
Section 314Form and time limits
Section 315Appeal on points of fact and law and application for restoration of status quo ante
Section 316Obstacle to finality of judgment
Section 317Grounds for appeal on points of fact and law
Section 318Restriction of appeal on points of fact and law
Section 319Filing out of time
Section 320Submission of files to public prosecution office
Section 321Transmission of files to court of appeal
Section 322Dismissal without main hearing
Section 322aDecision whether to accept appeal
Section 323Preparation of main hearing on appeal on points of fact and law
Section 324Course of main hearing on appeal on points of fact and law
Section 325Reading out of documents
Section 326Closing speeches
Section 327Extent of review of judgment
Section 328Content of judgment
Section 329Defendant’s failure to appear; representation in main hearing on appeal
Section 330Measures in case of appointment of statutory representative
Section 331Prohibition of reformatio in peius
Section 332Application of provisions on main proceedings before court of first instance
Division 4
Appeal on points of law
Section 333Admissibility
Section 334(repealed)
Section 335Immediate appeal on points of law in lieu of appeal on points of fact and law
Section 336Review of decisions preceding judgment
Section 337Grounds for appeal on points of law
Section 338Absolute grounds for appeal on points of law
Section 339Legal norms for defendant’s benefit
Section 340Appeal on points of law against judgment on appeal on points of fact and law by defendants with legal representation
Section 341Form and time limits
Section 342Appeal on points of law and application for restoration of status quo ante
Section 343Obstacle to finality of judgment
Section 344Grounds for appeal on points of law
Section 345Time limit for stating grounds for appeal on law
Section 346Belated or improper filing
Section 347Service; response; submission of files to appeal court
Section 348Lack of jurisdiction
Section 349Decision without main hearing
Section 350Main hearing on appeal on points of law
Section 351Course of main hearing on appeal on points of law
Section 352Extent of review of judgment
Section 353Quashing of judgment and findings
Section 354Own decision on merits; referral to lower court
Section 354aDecision in event of legislative amendment
Section 355Referral to competent court
Section 356Pronouncement of judgment
Section 356aViolation of right to be heard when taking decision on appeal
Section 357Effect on persons convicted in same proceedings
Section 358Binding effect on lower court; prohibition of reformatio in peius
Book 4
Reopening of proceedings concluded by final judgment
Section 359Reopening for convicted person’s benefit
Section 360No obstacle to enforcement
Section 361Reopening following enforcement of sentence or death of convicted person
Section 362Reopening to convicted person’s detriment
Section 363Inadmissibility
Section 364Allegation of offence
Section 364aAppointment of defence counsel for reopened proceedings
Section 364bAppointment of defence counsel to prepare reopened proceedings
Section 365Operation of general provisions on appellate remedies regarding application
Section 366Content and form of application
Section 367Jurisdiction; decision without oral hearing
Section 368Dismissal for inadmissibility
Section 369Taking of evidence
Section 370Decision on well-foundedness
Section 371Acquittal without new main hearing
Section 372Immediate complaint
Section 373Judgment after new main hearing; prohibition of reformatio in peius
Section 373aProcedure for summary penalty order
Book 5
Participation of aggrieved persons in proceedings
Division 1
Section 373bMeaning of ʻaggrieved personʼ
Division 2
Private prosecution
Section 374Admissibility; persons entitled to bring private prosecution
Section 375More than one person entitled to bring private prosecution
Section 376Preferment of public charges in respect of offences open to private prosecution
Section 377Participation of public prosecutor; assumption of prosecution
Section 378Assistance for and representation of private prosecutor
Section 379Provision of security; legal aid
Section 379aPayment of advance for fees
Section 380Unsuccessful attempt at reconciliation as condition for admissibility
Section 381Preferment of charges
Section 382Communication of charges
Section 383Order opening or refusing to open main hearing; termination in case of minor guilt
Section 384Further procedure
Section 385Status of private prosecutor; summons; inspection of files
Section 386Summons of witnesses and experts
Section 387Representation at main hearing
Section 388Countercharges
Section 389Termination by judgment upon suspicion of public offence
Section 390Appellate remedies available to private prosecutors
Section 391Withdrawal of private prosecution; dismissal in event of defects; restoration of status quo ante
Section 392Effect of withdrawal
Section 393Death of private prosecutor
Section 394Notification of accused
Division 3
Private accessory prosecution
Section 395Right to join as private accessory prosecutor
Section 396Declaration of joinder; decision on right of joinder
Section 397Rights of private accessory prosecutor
Section 397aAppointment of lawyer as assisting counsel; legal aid
Section 397bJoint assisting counsel for private accessory prosecutors
Section 398Course of proceedings following joinder
Section 399Notification and contestability of previous decisions
Section 400Private accessory prosecutor’s right to appellate remedy
Section 401Appellate remedy available to private accessory prosecutor
Section 402Revocation of declaration of joinder; death of private accessory prosecutor
Division 4
Adhesion proceedings
Section 403Assertion of rights in adhesion proceedings
Section 404Application; legal aid
Section 405Settlement
Section 406Decision on application in criminal judgment; dispensing with decision
Section 406aAppellate remedies
Section 406bEnforcement
Section 406cReopening of proceedings
Division 5
Other rights of aggrieved persons
Section 406dNotification of status of proceedings
Section 406eInspection of files
Section 406fAssistance for aggrieved persons
Section 406gPsychosocial assistance in legal proceedings
Section 406hAssisting counsel for aggrieved persons entitled to private accessory prosecution
Section 406iNotification of aggrieved persons of rights in criminal proceedings
Section 406jNotification of aggrieved persons of rights outside criminal proceedings
Section 406kFurther information
Section 406lRights of aggrieved persons’ relatives and heirs
Book 6
Special types of procedure
Division 1
Procedure for summary penalty orders
Section 407Admissibility
Section 408Judicial decisions on application for summary penalty order
Section 408aApplication for summary penalty order after opening of main proceedings
Section 408bAppointment of defence counsel following application for sentence of imprisonment
Section 409Content of summary penalty order
Section 410Objection; form of and time limit for objection; finality of judgment
Section 411Dismissal for inadmissibility; date of main hearing
Section 412Defendant’s failure to appear; dismissal of objection
Division 2
Preventive detention proceedings
Section 413Admissibility
Section 414Procedure; application
Section 415Main hearing without accused
Section 416Transition to criminal proceedings
Division 2a
Accelerated proceedings
Section 417Admissibility
Section 418Conduct of main hearing
Section 419Court decision; sentence
Section 420Taking of evidence
Division 3
Procedure for confiscation and asset seizure
Section 421Exemption from confiscation
Section 422Separation of confiscation proceedings
Section 423Confiscation following separation
Section 424Parties to confiscation proceedings in criminal proceedings
Section 425Exemption from participation in proceedings
Section 426Hearing of possible parties to confiscation proceedings in preparatory proceedings
Section 427Powers of parties to confiscation proceedings in main proceedings
Section 428Representation of parties to confiscation proceedings
Section 429Notification of date of main hearing
Section 430Status in main hearing
Section 431Appellate proceedings
Section 432Confiscation by way of summary penalty order
Section 433Subsequent proceedings
Section 434Decision in subsequent proceedings
Section 435Independent confiscation proceedings
Section 436Decision in independent confiscation proceedings
Section 437Special provisions governing independent confiscation proceedings
Section 438Accessory parties in criminal proceedings
Section 439Legal consequences equivalent to confiscation
Sections 440 to 442(repealed)
Section 443Seizure of property
Division 4
Procedure for imposition of regulatory fines against legal entities and associations
Section 444Procedure
Sections 445 to 448(repealed)
Book 7
Enforcement of sentence and costs of proceedings
Division 1
Enforcement of sentence
Section 449Enforceability
Section 450Crediting of remand detention and disqualification from driving
Section 450aCrediting of deprivation of liberty undergone abroad
Section 451Enforcing authority
Section 452Right to grant pardon
Section 453Subsequent decision on suspension of sentence on probation or warning with sentence reserved
Section 453aInstruction on suspension of sentence or warning with sentence reserved
Section 453bSupervision during probation period
Section 453cProvisional measures prior to revocation of suspension
Section 454Suspension of remainder of sentence of imprisonment on probation
Section 454aStart of probation period; revocation of suspension of remainder of sentence
Section 454bSequence of enforcement of sentences of imprisonment and default imprisonment; interruption
Section 455Postponement of enforcement of sentence of imprisonment owing to unfitness to serve
Section 455aPostponement of enforcement of sentence on organisational grounds
Section 456Temporary postponement
Section 456aExemption from enforcement in case of extradition, transfer or expulsion
Section 456b(repealed)
Section 456cPostponement and suspension of prohibition of exercising profession
Section 457Investigatory acts; order to appear before judge, warrant of arrest for enforcement of sentence of imprisonment
Section 458Court decisions on enforcement of sentence
Section 459Recovery of fine; operation of Act on the Recovery of Claims of the Judicial Authorities
Section 459aAuthorisation to relax payment conditions
Section 459bCrediting of instalments
Section 459cRecovery of fine
Section 459dNon-recovery of fine
Section 459eEnforcement of default imprisonment
Section 459fExemption from enforcement of default imprisonment
Section 459gEnforcement of incidental legal consequences
Section 459hCompensation
Section 459iNotification requirements
Section 459jProcedure for return and surrender
Section 459kProcedure for disbursement of proceeds of realisation
Section 459lRights of persons concerned
Section 459mCompensation in other cases
Section 459nPayments following confiscation of equivalent sum of money
Section 459oObjections against decisions of enforcing authority
Section 460Subsequent formation of aggregate sentence
Section 461Crediting of period of time spent in hospital
Section 462Procedure for court decisions; immediate complaint
Section 462aJurisdiction of criminal chamber responsible for enforcement of sentence and of court of first instance
Section 463Enforcement of measures of reform and prevention
Section 463aJurisdiction and powers of supervisory authorities
Section 463bSeizure of driving licence
Section 463cPublic announcement of conviction and sentence
Section 463dCourt assistance agency
Section 463eOral hearing by way of audio-visual transmission
Division 2
Costs of proceedings
Section 464Decision on costs and expenses; immediate complaint
Section 464aCosts of proceedings; necessary expenses
Section 464bAssessment of costs
Section 464cCosts of appointing translator or interpreter for indicted accused
Section 464dDistribution of expenses
Section 465Convicted persons’ obligation to pay costs
Section 466Co-convicted persons’ liability for expenses as joint and several debtors
Section 467Costs and necessary expenses on acquittal, non-opening and termination
Section 467aTreasury expenses on termination following withdrawal of charges
Section 468Costs following ruling of non-liability for punishment
Section 469Costs charged to person making reckless or intentionally untrue report
Section 470Costs of withdrawing request to prosecute
Section 471Costs of private prosecution
Section 472Necessary expenses of private accessory prosecutor
Section 472aCosts and necessary expenses of adhesion proceedings
Section 472bCosts and necessary expenses of involved third parties
Section 473Costs of withdrawn or unsuccessful appellate remedies; costs of restitution of status quo ante
Section 473aCosts and necessary expenses of separate decision on lawfulness of investigation measure
Book 8
Protection and use of data
Division 1
Provision of information and inspection of files, other use of data for overarching purposes
Section 474Provision of information to and inspection of files by judicial and other public authorities
Section 475Provision of information to and inspection of files by private individuals and other agencies
Section 476Provision of information and inspection of files for research purposes
Section 477Ex officio data transmission
Section 478Form of data transmission
Section 479Prohibition of data transmission and restrictions of use
Section 480Decision on data transmission
Section 481Use of personal data for police purposes
Section 482Notification of file reference number and outcome of criminal proceedings to police
Division 2
Provisions on data processing
Section 483Data processing for purposes of criminal proceedings
Section 484Data processing for purposes of future criminal proceedings; authorisation to issue statutory instruments
Section 485Data processing for purposes of administration of proceedings
Section 486Shared file systems
Section 487Transmission of stored data; provision of information
Section 488Automated data transmission procedures
Section 489Deletion and restriction of processing of data
Section 490Order creating automated file systems
Section 491Information provided to data subjects
Division 3
National register of proceedings conducted by public prosecution offices
Section 492Central register of proceedings conducted by public prosecution offices
Section 493Automated data transmission procedure
Section 494Correction, deletion and restriction of processing of data; authorisation to issue statutory instruments
Section 495Information provided to data subjects
Division 4
Protection of personal data in electronic files; use of personal data extracted from electronic files
Section 496Use of personal data in electronic files
Section 497Data processing on behalf of data controller
Section 498Use of personal data extracted from electronic files
Section 499Deletion of electronic copies of files
Division 5
Operation of Federal Data Protection Act
Section 500Corresponding application